|Paper||Millard County Chronicle|
|Rights||No Copyright - United States (NoC-US)|
|Publisher||Digitized by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah|
|Article Title||Second Year of the War Reviewed|
|Paper||Millard County Chronicle|
SECOND YEAR OF THEMIID Germany Holds More Territory in Europe Than It Did Twelve Months Ago. f LOSER IN OTHER RESPECTS Entente Allies Now Hammering Teutons Hard on All Sides. AUSTRIA SEEMS WEAKENING British Naval Blockade Still Effective After Great Battle of Jutland Chief Developments of Year in Terrific World Conflict. PP.ESENT MILITARY AND NAVAL NA-VAL FORCES OF THE WARRING WAR-RING POWERS. Great Britain (Asqulth's statement less losses) 4,500,000 France 2,o00,000 Russia (little definite known)7,000,000 Ilaly 1,500,000 RclKium 150,000 Serbia 200.000 Montenegro Practically none Portugal (little dennite known) 75,000 Japan (only officers at front) 300,000 Total, entente allies 15,225,000 Germany 5,000,000 Austrla-Hdngury 2,500,000 Turkey 1,500.000 Bulgaria 700,000 Total, central powers. ...9,700,000 TOTAL KILLED. WOUNDED AND PRISONERS. (In considering the losses it must be remembered that many listed aa wounded are only slightly hurt and return to the front. Some are wounded several successive timea and each time appear in the casualties.) casu-alties.) Russia 5.500,000' France (about 900,000 killed) .2,300.000 Great Britain 800,000 ;taly 400,000 Belgium 180,000 Serbia 230,000 Total, entente 9,410,000 Germany, (estimated 700,000 killed) 4,000,000 Austria-Hungary 2,760,000 Turkey 500,000 Bulgaria 60,000 Total, Teutonic allies 7,300,000 Grand total, killed, wounded, wound-ed, prisoners 16,710,000 In the Napoleonic wars, 1793-1S15, 1,900,000 men were killed; in the American Civil war 494,400; in the Russo-Japanese war 555,900. What the War Is Costing. The war is now costing in direct governmental expenditure $110,000,-000 $110,000,-000 a day; $4,680,000 an hour; $76,000 a minute; and $1,270 a second. The end of the second year of the great war finds the Germans In possession posses-sion of more of Europe than they held on August 1, 1915, the first anniversary of the start of the great conflict. This Is practically the only respect In which the situation is more favorable favor-able to them. Russia, her vast man , power nt last organized and furnished 1 with Implements of destruction In plenty, is battering the Teuton lines on the east and has already won back 4,500 SQUtire miles. Great Britain boasts five million men in her army nnd navy. France fights as strongly as ever. Italy Is Increasing her forml-dableness. forml-dableness. Austria appears to be losing heart nrul efllclency. Bulgaria refuses to send re-enforcements to the west or Russian fronts. Turkey shows slight offensive power. The British navy, following the much-disputed naval battle of Jutland, still shuts off Germany from use of the seas. One German merchnnt submarine sub-marine has reached America, but the supplies which can be carried over to the besieged nations in D-boats will be of little account. Germany and Austria both feel the pinch of hunger. Their armies are sufliciently fed, but their Industrial workers complain of lack of nourishment. nourish-ment. The present harvest Is watched with anxiety, nnd if it fails or is only of fair size, famine will stalk Into the situation next spring, or earlier. Germany Seeks "Reasonable Peace:" The German chancellor three times in the rolehstng has offered peace to the entente. On account of this, formidable for-midable opposition has arisen to him tit home, although he is the kaiser's "other self." His friends are rallying to his defense, nnd on August 1 of the present year begins the curious country-wide lecture campaign to prepare the minds of the hitherto docile German Ger-man people for a "reasonable peace." Meanwhile, with the sky brightening, the entente allies reaffirm their resolution, resolu-tion, taken In the dark hours of last winter, never to cease their efforts till Germany Is crushed. The Teutons not only must be beaten In war, according to the allied formula, but must be repressed re-pressed economically for many years after the signing of a treaty of peace. On August 1, 1013, the Germans and fc. Austrians were in the midst of their brilliant campaign against Russia. The "pincers" were closing In irresistibly. That day Lublin, an important city in southern Toland, fell. Von Mackensen, with Galicla conquered, con-quered, was pressing northward, while on the north side of the Polish salient Yon Hindenburg bore with his host of field-gray warriors. Without guns, without ammunition. with nothing except myriads of Slav giants, some of whom resisted charges with sharpened sticks in their hands, Russia was forced to fall back rapidly. Twice it seemed the flower of the czar's army would be surrounded, once In the vicinity of Warsaw, and again in the great battle near Yilna. The tale of the taking of great towns grew almost tedious. It seemed the Germans would never stop. Whether they did stop of their own accord or were finally checked by the Russians is not yet clear. They settled down for the winter on a long line stretching stretch-ing from the Baltic just west of Riga southeast along the Dvinn river, and then almost due south through Polies-sie, Polies-sie, the I'insk marsh district, to the Roumanian frontier. Reawakening of Russia. On September 8 Czar Nicholas took command of all his armies in the field, sending his cousin, the Grand Duke Nicholas, to the less important command com-mand of the Caucasus operations. With their "Little Father" at their head, the Russians forgot their long, discouraging retreat. Millions of new young soldiers joined them, drawn . from Russia's great reservoir of bu-I bu-I man beings, which produces three and a half million men of military age ev-' ev-' ery year. On September 10 the Russians won a success near Tarnopol and Trembowla. and two days later they drove the Teu-. Teu-. tons back 14 miles in Galicla. In other parts of the front the Germans were still seizing large slices of territory, but their enemies were regaining their energy. On September 2G the Russians Rus-sians recaptured Lutsk, but were driven driv-en out in a short time. On October 20 they recaptured Czartorysk, but they were not able to prevent the Germans storming Illuxt five days later. Czartorysk Czar-torysk was lost and again taken by the czar January 8. Meanwhile the conquest of Serbia, the greatest tragedy of the war, excepting ex-cepting only the massacre of 800,000 Armenians, was being enacted. Invasion of Serbia. The real invasion of Serbia started in the first days of October. A great diplomatic battle had been fought in Sofia, and the allies had lost. On October Oc-tober 7 Bulgaria in an ultimatum to King Peter of Serbia, peremptorily demanded de-manded the immediate cession of the Macedonian, lands in dispute between the two countries and then in the possession pos-session of the Serbs. After a general bombardment the Teutons crossed the river boundaries of Serbia in many places on October 8. Two days later they occupied Belgrade. Bel-grade. On the thirteenth Bulgaria invaded in-vaded her neighbor at three points. The successes of the Teutons and the Bulgarians were almost unbroken. The invading forces consisted of a vast amount of heavy artillery, with small infantry supporting forces. They shelled the Serbians out of position after position in an avalanche of steel to which the Serbians could make no reply. Small forces of French and English landed at Saloniki, a Greek port to which Serbia had certain entry privileges, privi-leges, and did something to cover the retreat of the Serbians by engaging the Bulgarians in the South. At the beginning of winter, November Novem-ber 22, the Serbian soldiers crossed their western border and struck the trails of the dreary, snow-covered mountains of the coast. Great numbers num-bers perished of cold and hunger on the way. On November 29 Germany proudly announced that the Serbian campaign had ended, having met with complete success. Two Blows to the British. The winter also saw the humiliation humilia-tion of the British in Mesopotamia. The Indian government recklessly pushed a small, poorly supplied expedition expe-dition up the Tigris valley avsl actually actu-ally penetrated to within seven miles of Bagdad. Here the Turks, with German Ger-man officers directing them, administered adminis-tered a defeat and the invaders fell back with the enemy harassing them to the town of Kut-el-Amara, where they were besieged December 10. Another expedition, also insufficient, was sent to relieve the first. It was beaten off with large losses a few miles below Kut, a flood of the river nnd swamps assisting the Turks, nnd on April 30 the 12,000 defenders of Kut capitulated by order of the British Brit-ish higher command. A further British humiliation was the evacuation of Gallipoli peninsula, where the British held on doggedly month after month, losing perhaps 200,000 men, until they were finally withdrawn in confession of failure the first week of January. These two British fiascos were what was needed to arouse the sluggish fighting blood of John Bull. They finally brought England Into the war fully and uncompromisingly, to the same extent as the other great powers. pow-ers. On August 10 Great Britain started her national register, or census of all men of fighting age. The result showed a vast reserve of man power. Certain sections demanded immediate conscription, con-scription, but they wore not successful. success-ful. Instead the oarl of Derby was commissioned to start a vast recruiting recruit-ing campaign. This produced a number num-ber of classes of "attested men," who bound themselves to come into the ranks with their age groups. But there were still hundreds of thousands unreached, and the public began to see that it was discriminating in favor of the "slackers" nnd the cowards. On December 21 David Lloyd-George, Lloyd-George, the minister of munitions and greatest man the war has produced in Great Britain, declared the country faced defeat unless greater efforts were made. A week later he threatened threat-ened to resign from the cabinet unless un-less conscription was adopted. Conscription was fiercely fought, but on January 6 a hill introducing it passed its first reading in the bot.se of commons by a large majority. The bill was finally signed by King George May 26. Allies Get Together. Their defeats finally taught the allies al-lies that their efforts must be co-ordinated, like their enemies', if they were to be effective. A new war council, with all the allies represented, met in Paris December 7 and a kind of international general staff was organized. or-ganized. It is known that General Joseph Jo-seph Joffre, French commander in chief since the beginning of the war, and the hero of the battle of the Marne, was the presiding genius. The effects of the council were not to be seen for several months, but now- they are being realized in full measure. To check a simultaneous allied offensive, of-fensive, which they clenrly saw coming, com-ing, the Teutons decided on two attacks at-tacks of their own. This follows the well-known axiom of German military mili-tary strategy that the best defense is an energetic attack. The first of these offensive defensives defen-sives was the attack on the French fortress of Verdun, where the works were subjected to a whirlvnd of fire beginning February 21. The gains of the first week were great, and German critics foretold the collapse of the French. Two of the defending forts, Vaux and Douaumont, fell, and important impor-tant positions were taken west of the Meuse river as well. But Joffre rallied his men in splendid splen-did fashion and sold each yard of ground at an awful cost in German blood. Step by step the crown prince's men pushed forward, but today they are still more than two miles from the ruined fortress town and the resistance resist-ance of the French is as strong as ever. Austrian Drive Checked. The second Teutonic offensive was organized by the Austrians in the Trentiuo, and they struck in the direction di-rection of Vieenza with the object of cutting off the northern end of Italy from the main portion. On May 26, as the result of several days' violent vio-lent artillery fire followed by infantry rushes, they were able to announce the capture of 24,000 Italians. General Count Cadorna hurried about a hundred thousand men in motor mo-tor cars to the scene, while many more arrived on foot or trains. Just when it seemed the Austrians must reach the lowlands the counter-attacks were delivered. On June 30 Rome announced a splendid splen-did victory. In bloody fighting the Austrians, perhaps weakened by drafts to bolster up their Russian front, were driven from peak to peak almost to where their lines had stood throughout the winter. In March the Russians delivered vast but futile attacks on the German Ger-man front nt many points, probably to distract attention from Verdun. The 'Germans seemed to have been lulled into security by these efforts, which they probably considered the best the czar could do. But the tens of thousands thou-sands of Muscovite bodies lining the Germans' barbed wire were but a patter pat-ter of rain compared with the storm that was brewing behind the Russian lines. At the beginning of June this storm broke with full force and, following the principle of attacking the weakest point, the Austrians holding the line from the marsh district southward were forced to bear the brunt of it. Russia's Big Push. Millions of shells, manufactured largely in British, Japanese and American factories, blasted away wire, trenches, dugouts and observation points. Then the hordes of Siberians, Sibe-rians, Cossacks nnd others swept over the field. The Austrians could not withstand the Impact and they gave way steadily. June 6, General Brusiloff announced the capture of 13,000 Austrians; June 8, the number for the three succeeding succeed-ing days alone was 43,000, and the numbers kept mount'-ig until on July 20 General Shoovaieff, Russian minister min-ister of war, estimated the number of Austro-Hungariun prisoners nt 270,-000. 270,-000. The killed and wounded are untold, un-told, but the number must be large enough to bring the total loss well over half a million. German support was rushed to the Austrians, but the foe captured Lutsk and Dubno, and reached the Stokhod and Lipa rivers In Volhynia ; overran all Bukowina to the Carpathians and sent patrols of Cossacks into Hungary to ravage the country. That the czar is anticipating further great gains of territory is seen from Russia's action In mobilizing the males of the island of Saghalien, Turkestan, Tur-kestan, nud one other district to build roads, dig trenches nnd do other work of organizing the ground won. Allies' Drive In Somme Region. Almost a month to a day following the beginning of the groat Russian f-fonsive f-fonsive French and British opened their drive in the vicinity of the Somme river. They have gained gradually grad-ually but steadily, and the oliicial reports re-ports assert the losses of the attackers attack-ers are comparatively small. It is also the claim of ihe allies that the Franco-British offensive can be kept up nt its present rale indefinitely, indefinite-ly, and will not have to be slackened for lack of shells, guns or men. The rate of progress is much greater than the Germans' at Verdun, but the country coun-try traversed is less difficult. On the other- hand, the Verdun assailants have the advantage of attacking from the outside of a curve, while the French and British now attack from inside the salient they have made in the line. Meanwhile the Verdun offensive offen-sive of the Gentians continues. Outside of Europe the Germans have lost their Cameroon colony on the west coast of Africa, the remaining defenders defend-ers having crossed into Spanish territory ter-ritory and been interned. The army of East Africa still resists the converging converg-ing columns of Belgians. French and British but, shut off from re-enforcements, its doom would seem to be sealed. On April 25 Sir Roger Casement, Irish knight, tried to land from a German Ger-man warship on the coast of Ireland, Ire-land, but was captured. The next day a revolt in Dublin and other Irish cities broke out and the center of the Irish capital was burned. The revolt was easily quelled, the British announcing resistance had ceased on May 1. More successful was the revolt ot the Arabs, led by the grand shereff. against their Turkish overlords. Mecca, Mec-ca, Medina and others towns have been captured nnd are held still, probably with British assistance. Doings in the Air. Recent months have seen a cessation cessa-tion of Zeppelin raids on undefended British and French towns. The cause of this is somewhat of a mystery, as the Germans have claimed important military results from their attacks. On September 7-8 there were twe raids on London, thirty persons being killed and a proportionate number wounded. Fifty-five were killed by Zeppelins in a raid on London October 13. On January 20 the German dirigibles bombarded Paris, killing 23 and od February 1 Liverpool and other English Eng-lish centers were visited and 59 slain. On April 2 a Zeppelin killed 28 in England and was destroyed on the British coast as it returned. On March 6 13 were killed. On April 6 it was announced that the fifth Zeppelin raid in six days on the British coast had been made. The Germans declared that war munition factories and supply depots had been destroyed. Since then England apparently has been immune from the Zeppelins. This may be due to the large number of dirigibles lost, or to the outcry against the inhumanity of the practices of the Germans which was raised in neutral countries. One other important moral defeat was sustained by the Germans when they hurried Edith Cnvell, a British nurse, to execution, as announced by Brand Whitlofk, American minister of Belgium, on October 22. The greatest naval engagement of history in number of men engaged nnd number slain was fought June 3 near the Sknggerrak, in the North sea. The result was inconclusive, each side claiming a great victory and the reports re-ports varying widely in estimates of losses on the two sides. If the Germans, as they assert, seriously seri-ously crippled the British grand fleet, we will probably "soon see them come out of Kiel again, to finish their task. At present, however, the British blockade block-ade is broken only by the merchant submarine Deutschland, which reached Baltimore July 9. Kaiser Yields to America. The year has also been the culmination culmi-nation of the submarine dispute between be-tween the United States and Germany, which terminated in the kaiser's capitulating capit-ulating and promising to warn merchantmen mer-chantmen before attacking. A U-boat sank the liner Arabic August Au-gust 20, two Americans being among the slain. Two more of our nationals died when the Hesperian was torpedoed torpe-doed September 6. On November 10 several Americans died in the torpedoing torpe-doing of the Italian liner Ancona. It is thought two Americans were lost in the sinking of the Tersia in the Mediterranean Medi-terranean January 2. The crisis was precipitated March 20, when the British Brit-ish channel ferry steamer Sussex wns torpedoed without warning. Two hundred hun-dred and thirty-five persons were killed and several Americans were injured. in-jured. This flagrant violation of the rules of war caused President Wilson to press Germany for sweeping assurances, assur-ances, which were given In a note May 6 on condition that the United States force Great Britain to conduct her blockade legally. Mr. Wilson answered an-swered he would accept the promise, but without the proviso. The many times heralded Turco-Ger-man invasion of Egypt has not yet materialized ma-terialized and probably never will. On the other hand, the Russian grand duke has added to his laurels by capturing cap-turing the Important inland city of Erzerura February 17, Bltlis March 4 and the seaport of Treblzond April 19. The Turks In counter-attacks pressed back the Russians In Persia, but recently the czar's men have advanced ad-vanced rnpidly in the northern part of Asia Minor and the resistance of the Turks seems to have been broken. Exploits of the Moewe. Only one German commerce raider net a submarine distinguished itself in the year. The fast Moewe sank many allied ships off the coast of Africa and reached a home port in safety March 6. On February 2 a German Ger-man prize crew brought the Appam. a British capture, Into Hampton Roads, having come all the way across the Atlantic At-lantic with her. The ownership of this vesel is still In the American courts. Two more nations have been drawn into the war. The entrance of Bulgaria Bul-garia has been described. On Mrch 10 Germany declared war on Portugal. Portuguese nnd German troops had clashed in Africa some time before and Portugal had just seized the German Ger-man :-h:ps in her harbors. The actions ac-tions of the republic were induced by a treaty according to which she promises prom-ises to come to Great Britain's assistance assist-ance whenever requested to do so. The British lost the equivalent of several army corps when Lord Kitchener Kitch-ener was drowned June 7 In the sinking sink-ing of the cruiser Hampshire by a mine while on his way to Russia.