BEAR RIVER VALLEY LEADER ft Live Stock Dairy Horticulture Poultry The Leader Home and Farm .... Contributions EFFECTIVE MEASURES by hi Home Economic Household Womem't Young People Department w Noted Writers .... FOR PREVENTING EROSION OF MUCH VALUABLE FARM LAND Welcome, a thousand times welcome, ye uear ana aeucate neighbors-Bi- rd and bee and butterfly, and hum mlngbird fairy fine! Proud am I to offer you field for your graceful labors; All the honey and Ml the seeds are yours m this garden of mine. -- Cella Thaatter. MORE HOT WEATHER DISHES. i ;tSA a Gullying Which Causes a Loss of Land and a Lowering of the Water Table. (Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Soil erosion, or the washing away of earth by water, costs the fanners of the United States $1,000,000 every year. Soil losses from this cause occur In every state of the Union and In almost every county of every state. Nine years ago the National Conserva- tion congress reported that 4,000,00(1 acres of farm land had been practically ruined by soil erosion. So serious is the condition that Dr. N. S. Shaler, formerly dean of the Lawrence Scientific school, was once moved to remark that "If mankind cannot devise and enforce ways of dealing with the earth which will preserve this source of life, we must look forward to the time remote It may be, yet clearly dlscernihic when our kind, having wasted Its greatest Inheritance, will fade from the earth because of the ruin it has accomplished." Ruins Fertile Land. Erosion injures or practically ruins fertile lands in a number of wnys. The upper and most fertile parts of the soil are washed away until the land becomes barren and unproductive. Deep gullies are formed which rebuiL in au actual loss ot land for cultivation, a lowering of the water table and a deficient supply of moisture. Drainage ditches are often filled up with sand, which frequently results in the flooding of the adjoining bottom land and the destruction of crops. Rich bottom lauds are often covered with deposits of sand washed from the hill lands. Hence the direct losses of the upland farmer are the land occupied by gullies, smaller crop yields each year, and a continued decrease In the value of the land. Some of the losses of the bottom farmer are the land covered to a great depth with sand, crops damaged by overflows or deposits of sand, a continued decrease In the value of the land, and the money invested In the construction of drainage ditches that have been filled or partly filled with sand. Thus It is apparent that both the bottom and the upland farmer should be concerned in the adoption of effective measures for stopping erosion. Methods of Preventing Erosion. Since erosion is due largely to the rapid movement of the rain water over the surface of the ground, methods of preventing erosion must cause the water either to sink into the soil or flow away slowly ovr the surface to a drainage channel. If the rain water were absorbed by the soil as fast as it falls, there would be very little erosion. In order to drink up surface water rapidly a soil must be very permeable, which means that it must contain fairly large open spaces through which the rain water can pass easily, or where it can be stored temporarily. Some soils are naturally very permeable. A number of ways of Increasing the permeability of a soil are deep plowing, plowing under organic matter such as manure, stubble, stalks and cover crops; the practice of tile drainage, and, in certain soils, the use of explosives. Protection of Vegetation. Vegetation covering the surface ot the ground protects the soil from the direct action of the rain and checks The How of the water o er the surface, giving the soil a better opportunity to absorb the water. It is therefore important that some kind of cover crop, such as vetch, clover, oats, wheat or rye, be grown on the land during the winter or at any time that the land is not used for other crops. Contour plowing, which consists of breaking the ground along level lines across the slopes, reduces the flow of water directly down the slope. Also in planting and cultivating the crops the same level lii.es are followed so that a shallow trough Is made above each row. Most of the rain water is caught and. held In this trough until It either evaporates or is absorbed by the soil. Contour plowing should invariably be practiced on all hill lands The beginning of a great many gullies Is due to the practice of plowing and cultivating directly up and down the Ejrgs will have reached the lowest figure for the year, during the sum mer, and If ever, now is the time to indulge in egg dishes galore, as well as In packing them for winter use. Beauregard Eggs. Take five eggs, d well-beate- If you cannot set to meter all the music of your soul. Then let Its heavenly harmony your dally life control; Until from out the discord of life's bitterness and pain Sweet symphonies shall rise nor your g be In vain. Alice Dun la p. life-son- FRUIT COCKTAILS There Is no more appetizing beginning for a summer meal than a fruit cocktail. They should be served very cold In small glasses or In fruit cups such as lemon, orange, ple or ap- grape- fruit. Vegetables are also- used, as cocktails, the tomato being the especial favorite. In preparing fruits for cocktails two things should he remembered : The fruit should stand in a sirup or sprinkled with sugar to he well sweetened. To prepare the sirup use twice as much sugar as water and cook It until thoroughly dissolved. The entire menu should be considered when serving a fruit cocktail, as other fruits do not appear nt the same meal. If a vegetable cocktail (put together with some sort of a salad dress ing) is served, the satad is omitted for that meal. One of the most attractive cocktnils may be made by using watermelon or muskmelon for the foundation. Cut Ihe melon with a French potato cutter Into small balls and cover with a ginger sirnp, using ihe Canton ginger and bits of ginger; pour over the balls of For cantelonpe. watermelon the dainty color makes a most effective dish; use the heart of the melon for balls and simple, lightly flavored sirup of sugar water ami lemon juice. It Is unwise to add a sirup too highly flavored, for the fruit flavor itself, should - EOLL WEEVIL LOSES GROUND Second Year in History of Insect That There Has Been Reduction in Infested Territory. (Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Due to the hard winter of 1917-1the boil weevil lost ground in his conquest of the cotton belt last year. This is exceptional in the history of the weevil, in that it Is the second year since the establishment of this Insect In the United States that there hns been a net reduction In territory Infested by this pest. This does not mean that the movement of the boll weevil has been permanently stopped. In fact, Ihe net was but loss of territory for the a fraction of the ioss at the beginning of 1913. Much of the lost territory was regained by the weevil later In Hie year. Tlie losses In territory occurred In Texas, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Aln bantn. The weevil gained territory In Florida, South Carolina, Georgia, and fTew Mexico This is (lie first report of the boll weevil on cotton in New Mexico, where It was found In th? Pecos valley. . The weevil has reached the southernmost limits of cotton production In Florida. It is steadily gaining new territory in South Carolina. Almost the cotton belt Is now In- entire . fested. Altogether the weevil Invaded only 10,100 square miles of new territory during 1913. It lost 40,000 square miles of formerly Infested territory, making a net losa of 30,500 square miles. About 150.000 square miles of cotton territory still remain un!n- fested. Roof for Poultry House. There are many advantages to a single-pitcroof on the poultry house. This type Is most easily built. It gives the highest vertical front exposed to the sun's rays and throw all of the rain water to the rear. h The more property and regularly nil refuse of the household Is harmlessly disposed of the better for the health fulness nnd comfort of the home. court-martia- NEWS REVIEW OF hard-cooke- d one tablespoonful of cornstarch, five squares of toast, one cunful of milk. one tablespoonful of butter with salt and pepper to taste. Chop the egg whites, rub the yolks through a sieve. Scald milk and add butter and cornstarch rubbed together. Now add the whites, then add salt and paprika to taste. Put the toast on a hot dish, cover with a layer of white sauce, then a layer of the yolks, then the whites, and finish with the yolks on top. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and put into the oven for a few minutes. Deviled Eggs One dozen cooked eggs, one teaspoonful of French mustard, four tablespoonfuls of minced ham or tongue, one tablespoonful of olive oil, salt and cayenne to taste. Eggs Poached In Tomatoes. Peel and cut Into small pieces six medium sized tomatoes. Chop fine one small Put the onion and togreen onion. matoes into a sauce pan and cook slowly 15 minutes, adding salt and pepper. Have ready slices of toast, buttered. Carefully drop six eggs Into the tomatoes, and when well poached place them carefully on the toast ; pour the tomatoes around them and serve at once. Peach Omelet. Pare and stone three ripe peaches, then press them through a sieve, add two toblespoon- n fuls of powdered sugar, and the yolks of three egss; add carefully the stiffly beaten whites of six, d and pour into a baking dish. Bake 15 or 20 minutes and serve at once. slopes. View Showing Erosion Between Cotton Rows Where Rows Are Run Directly Up and Down the Slope, a Practice Which Is Responsible for a Large Percentage of Badly Eroded Lands. 1. American troops parade In Paris on Independence day. 2 Djemal Pasha, Enver Pasha and Talaat Bey, leadl. ers of the Turkish government during the war, condemned to death by a Turkish 3 General Haig deconiting Major General Squires, U. S. A. be first. A pineapple and raspberry combination Is very good. Cut the pineapple with a small potato cutter and let' the fruits stand In sirup uncomblned for three hours, then chill them together one hour. Equal parts of sliced peaches nnd stoned cherries marinated In sugar sirup nnd garnished with frosted mint. Dip a sprig of mint In egg white then In sugar, having the mint well chilled. Twice ns much diced peach ns very . ripe ' blackberries, treated with the sirup nnd flavored with e little lemon : and orange Juice. CURRENTEVENTS American Independence, which would unquestionably be promptly accepted by the other nations." Curiously enough these several questions distinctively American and therefore presumably of the highest importance to this country have temPeace Treaty and League of Na- porarily been lost sight of In a burst of senatorial indignation over the actions Stir Up Lively Debate tion of the peace conference by which in the Senate. Shantung probably China's richest province, with 36,000,000 people, the birthplace of Confucius is given to Japan. SHANTUNG AWARD SCORED President Wilson presented the treaty to the senate July 10. He said that the treaty was nothing less than a world settlement and it was not posMade .That Gift of Chinese Charge Is sible for him In his address to sumProvince Is Price of Japan's Signamarize it; he would attempt only a ture Warning of Peril of War characterization of its scope general What Shall Be Done With and purpose. He offered to be at the Mexico? Daylight Law service of the senate or the foreign re Saved by President lations committee. He did not mention the Shantung provision, or the Monroe By EDWARD W. PICKARD. doctrine, or our obligations under arti"Many people have thought that cle X. Typical expressions of opinion the mere signing. of the treaty with regarding his address follow: Germany marks the ending of the "The address," said Senator Swan-soworld peril. The situation today is Democrat, Virginia, "is magnifistill serious. The world's statesmancent, able, eloquent and inspiring. The ship will be sorely tried In the next reasons presented for the ratification few years. of the treaty, including the League of "The peace conference fias been Nations, were strong, cogent and unhistory's greatest Instance of a uni- answerable." fied world statesmanship directing "Soothing, mellifluous and uninform-ing,- " the moral and material resources of was the comment of Senator nations: Illinois. the spirit behind it to disintegrate at this moment of emergency, when Taking Its stand on President Wilunited action is imperative, would be son's principle of "open covenants fatal to all the hopes of permanent openly arrived at," the senate commitpeace with which we entered the war. tee on foreign relations to consider the "Out of It all has come the most peace treaty met Monday. Senator International document Johnson, California, brought forward important ever drawn the treaty of peace with a resolution embodying a demand for Germany a document which not only data of every character relating to the meets the issues of the present war, treaty and its formulation. It called but also lays down new agreements for the suppressed plan for a League of the most helpful and most hopeful of Nations submitted to the peace concharacter. The nations are bound to ference by President Wilson, which the gether to avert another world catas- president admits was rejected in fatrophe, backward peoples are given a vor of the British plan, and also called new hope for their future ; several for the stenographic reports of the racial entities are liberated to form peace negotiations. It was adopted new states; a beginning Is made toTuesday by the committee. ward removing unjust economic reTuesday, after a heated debate, the strictions, and the great military au- senate, without a record vote, adopted tocracies of central Europe are de- Senator Lodge's resolution calling on stroyed as the first step In a general President Wilson to submit to the senate the text of the secret treaty negodisarmament. "The treaty Is, of course, not all tiated last year by Japan and Germany that we had hoped for. Too many and nil other data showing overtures conflicting Interests were involved. made by the mikado's government to the central powers during the war. Nearly every one will find in it weaknesses, both of omission and commisThroughout the debate the fighting revolved about the Shantung Incident. sion. "I come home pleased, but not over- -' Senator Lodge, Republican leader, complacent with the outcome of the charged that the Shantung peninsula last six months; hopfeul, but not in was "the purchase price for Japan's the least unmindful of the problems signature to the League of Nations covenant." Senator Moses of New yet to be solved." Hampshire, a Republican member of These are the words of Robert the foreign relations committee, called Lansing, United States secretary of it a "bribe," and Senator Norris of Nestate. They sound like both fact and braska, Republican, denounced It as sense. Therefore they are welcome "an outrage" and "a betrayal." In these topsy-turvSenator Hitchcock of Nebraska undays. Admitting that the League of Na- dertook to defend Japan's right to tions IA the hope of the world. Is It Shantung, but Senator Williams of one that America can accept In Jus- Mississippi, Democratic member of the That is what the foreign relations committee, frankly tice to herself? United States senate Is trying to find admitted that if President Wilson had out. It is the question of the hour. not yielded In the Shantung affair So many shades of Individual opinion Japan would have broken off from the are held among the senators that ac- allies and negotiated a separate treaty ceptance or rejection can hardly be with Germany. Realizing the close resaid to be a party question. Any- lations between Senator Williams and ' the White House, senators attached way, the Republican view Is presummuch importance to the Mississippi ably correctly set forth In the following official statement by Chairman member's statement that Japan would never give up Shantung again without Will H. Hays of- - the Republican naa war. tional committee: "If that's the challenge we might situntlon "The the respecting as well settle It now," said Senator league covenant Is simply this: "There must be effective reserva Borah of Idaho, Republican. Hons. These reservations must safeThursday was marked by lively senguard the sovereignty of the United States In every particular; mut ate proceedings. Senator Borah, Reguarantee the Monroe doctrine be- publican, Idaho, called upon the league yond the shadow of a doubt; must supporters' to join him In securing a either eliminate article 10 entirely or referendum. Senator Sherman, Repubso modify It that our own congress lican, Illinois, made an address warnshall be morally as well as legally ing the danger of war with Japan and free after a specified period to de- pointing out that such a war would cide when and where nnd to what ex- be "Great Britain's opportunity to retent our soldiers shall be employed; gain commercial nnd financial supremmust retain our full control of Im- acy from us." The senate adopted Senmigration, tariff and all other purely ator Borah's resolution demanding the domestic policies, and must provide text of the United States protest at fnll right to withdraw hindrance or Paris against the Shnntung award. President Wilson, seeing the league conditions of nny kind, upon giving" making no heodwny, and receiving no suitable notice. "It Is up to the administration to Invltntlon to nppenr before the foreign relations committee, began Issuing Indecide whether It will or will not ssentlal guarantees of vitations to Republican senators to ihea Tff-r-lo- y ac-M- visit him at the White House to dls cuss the treaty. Senator McCuraber, North Dakota, au outstanding supporter of the treaty and the league, was the first caller Thursday. Senator Colt, Rhode Island, was the second. What shall be done with Mexico? This question almost rivals the League of Nations in interest. Nobody seems ready with a complete program, but official Washington Is guessing that something will be done soon. Reports come from abroad that the administration Is pledged to intervention. This Is officially denied. Wednesday Mrs. John W. Correll, whose tragic experience is well known, arrived in Washington with her fatherless son. She hopes to meet the A list of 179 Americans president. murdered in Mexico since 1915 was made public by the National Association, for the Protection of American Rights In Mexico. Mrs.' Correll said she was leading the ghosts of the 500 Americans who had been murdered in Mexico since 1910. J The exclusion of Mexico from the League of Nations was based upon the ground that it had been unable to give proof of intention to observe International obligations. Aside from the murder of foreigners human life Is cheap these days money matters will probably force action. Americans have about $655,000,000 Invested in Mexico ; Great Britain about $670,000,-00France about $285,000,000; Spain, Holland and other countries about 0; $265,000,000. Great Britain and France, hold the United States responsible for the Mexican situation, under the Monroe doctrine and under the policy pursued since 1910. They want Mexico put In posltioq so that this property will not be confiscated and payment will be resumed on national and other debts. probable intervention by the United States, acting as mandatory for the League of Nations. The alternative which Is unthinkable Is that foreign nations will be allowed to Intervene, In spite of the Monroe doctrine. President Wilson has vetoed the agricultural appropriation bill, giving as his reason the fact that Included in it was a section repealing the daylight saving" law. Debates In congress indicate that the farmers were all' against the law, and bombarded congress, while the rest of the. country favored the law and did nothing to support it. Aside from the actual merit of the law, students of government approve the veto on the ground that legislation of this kind is vicious. Legislation by rider is never necessary, and is favored only by legislators who want to avoid responsibility. The house failed to pass the bill over the veto. Proceedings In congress seem to Indicate that the present vdry" spell will be prolonged and unrelieved. There are several preliminaries to the termination of war-tim- e prohibition and they all take time. First the treaty must be ratified. Then peace must be proclaimed. Finally complete demobilization of the army must be achieved. Apparently the length of the dry spell depends largely upon how Germnny and other countries behave. Don't think for a moment that the high cost of living is not receiving Its share of attention these days. The federal trade commission has reported an approaching domination by the packers of all important foods In the United States. The department of Justice hos begun the Investigation of n "$100,000,000 food combine"- - among th canners. Several resolutions have been Introduced In the house within the week calling for congressional Investigation Into prices and the cost of living. People who moved out rather than submit to nn Incrense In rent, have found all the furniture storage warehouses full, with waiting lists. In 47 leading cities in 27 states 89 per cent of all the household storage since Is occupied. And finally, "the npex of our woe, It now costs more to sove our dough" which Is to say that ar least one bank hns raised the price of safety deposit boxes GO cents a year. In the menntlme,.lf anyone Incks exciting rending, the newspnpers are full of every possible vnrlety nnd size of striku, wltu more la prospect. '