Show WATER small quantities of water may be most conveniently measured by timing with a can or vessel the contents of which have afave been predetermined pre determined another convenient way is to bore an auger hole in the side of a box and calculate s 00 CO tc Is w n 0 q TO 0 ta 0 t W as s sy ci en 0 M C 00 0 r 0 w P 1 eh 0 2 0 w ca w S fa S Z 0 09 M 00 K p D 9 8 A i P S 0 ta M 5 0 U CO 0 a c 0 M ss to S 0 00 8 SS ell t 0 pk d N ftc ai 4 ta 0 O K ca a 5 1 5 0 y 0 i C gl S 3 0 0 U M i d 11 Z c 53 a 4 0 0 t M M S d PP a i N C 0 d s 1 ja ta 0 Q 0 5 i a c r 2 21 ca ij c 3 1 0 0 5 0 5 5 4 44 4 4 0 50 S 3 0 0 41 4 1 0 H ra 2 d 0 2 k 0 40 4 1 3 a 3 0 0 P C 3 4 the discharge by multiplying the area of the orifice by the theoretical velocity and by a coefficient obtained by experiment the nearer together or to the bottom of the box than four times the diameter of the holes discharges IN U S GALS PER MIN THROUGH AUGER HOLES IN 1 IN BOARD coet I 1 DIA OV OF HOLES head va 1 9 1 1 1 1 in AREAS inches 1227 1767 3 1079 1549 6 38 9 1192 1863 1862 12 77 1379 2158 18 95 24 36 1342 48 1074 1548 2105 2745 60 72 1325 U S gals per cub ln in per see sec for larger quantities of water the weir method should be used preference is given to the cippoletti type in which the sided are inclined at an angle of one horizontal to four vertical see fig I 1 fig 2 shows a good scheme for taking r depths when great accuracy is required with the cippoletti weir the discharge will vary in direct proportion to the length of the weir or the same as weirs without end contractions the dimension L is to be taken for all depths as the effective length of weir cipp 0 lelli oletH feir ye r ailt ivun forfeits nd 41 onta M afe ff L ap P L x FED i t x MW ih 4 H 0 s H JC Z H lurhl luh Hl att u stfan FIG 1 I velocity of water falling free into air follows the law of falling bodies expressed in the formulae va H the coefficient will depend on the shape size of orifice and the head and will vary from 60 75 see pp ap the following table gives discharge from auger holes of different diameters in III 1 board under different heads them the head of water being measured from the center of hole to surface of water the boef used is throughout and will give results within 5 per cent of the truth if the board is thicker than I 1 the discharges discharge 6 will bb slightly increased iner eased As many holes may be bored in the box as will be necessary to measure the quantity tj flowing provided they are not for weir tables and detailed information see 1897 report of state engineer of utah and r h 4 v I 1 slide uehl shaws V olf af f adelel rth nth crest f iseff FIG 2 twines s pocket book pp ap the miners inch measure is antiquated inconvenient to rig up for and its use is to be generally condemned the word is used in such a multitude of meanings that it is a hopeless task to convey an exact idea of quantity by the word A miners inch is however generally taken to be about ten TT T T S gallons per minute but it may vary from nine to twelve according to conditions of head height and length of orifice for the flow of water in flumes blumes and ditches use kutters formulae see pp ap attached is an original diagram invented by the author with which this complicated formulae can be easily and quickly worked flows in pipe can also be worked by it the greatest safe velocity for a wooden flume is about seven or eight feet per second for an earth ditch in sandy soil one foot per second sandy loam will stand two feet per second and clayey soils will be safe at five or six feet per second velocities IN FEET PER SEC FOR FLUMES OF LUMBER 1 n flowing full J M c SIZE SI ZE grade I 1 ft in AREA AB EA per ct 45 80 24 34 37 41 01 41 48 53 59 59 03 02 57 67 76 83 04 67 81 95 06 82 for flumes blumes ads full x above vels by for va ads full x above vels by disch in sec ft area x vel see sec ft U S gals per permin min the most economical shape shap e of flume for both economy of material and carrying capacity pa is had when the width is twice the depth of water flowing in designing the piping for concentrating mills smelters shelters sm elters etc the pipe should be put in large enough so that the velocity does not exceed five or six feet per second the necessary diameter of pipe when quantities are ex expressed in U S gallons per minute can be found by the following simple formulae IT S VJ v for loss of head by friction use coxs formulae L av 2 friction head in in feet 3 d 1200 gun in feet addia in inches in feet per second loss of pressure in lbs ibs per sq tion head in ft x see kents pocket book pp ap in service pipes for the above purpose dont forget to add up the friction caused by elbows tees and v valves a alves the ordinary short radius tees bees and ells have a ratio between the radius of the pipe diameter and radius of theadis the axis of the curve of from 15 to and are the cause of a large loss of pressure the reduction of pressure produced by short 90 degree elbows and tees tee is the same as that caused by the following additional length of straight pipe dia of pipe 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 additional length 1 2 4 6 10 16 22 18 the formulae from which these have been calculated would indicate that when the radius of curve is ten times the radius of the pipe the loss of pressure is insignificant it is however advisable especially where large pipe is used to make the curve as many times more than ten as possible the so eo called long lona 1 I radius fitting have a ratio of radius of pipe to radius of axis of curve of from 25 to and they should be used wherever possible the friction by them being beina 0 approximately only one fifth that of the short pattern the reduction of pressure from globe valves is equal to 15 times that caused by ells and tees as follows dia valve 1 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 addal length 15 3 6 9 15 24 33 44 these figures are approximate only but are sufficiently accurate for practical purposes in laying out piping for a mill or smelter TO BE CONTINUED 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