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, v . ; . THE PROGRESSIVE OPINION TJ . On the Heels of the Invaders I ' ! x It X. i - ' ' t i' , - These men belong to the civil affairs group, made up of hand-pick-officers and enlisted men of the British and American armies, which will follow hot on the heels of allied invasion forces to restore free government in liberated areas and do the actual governing out-right in Germany. At top left is Maj. John C. Diggs, public works officer; top right, Capt. Allan Westervelt, communication officer; lower left, Maj. Benjamin Scheinman, legal officer; lower right, Lieut. Stephen Ware, assistant legal officer. These men, all of whom are especially qualified by former occupations, are now training in Great Britain. Forest Fires Sabotage War Plans by Destroying Lumber, Hastening Erosion, Diverting Manpower billion board feet below require-ments of that year) is slowed down every time woods and mill crews fight fires. Forest fires are real and potential threats to war plants and canton-ments, many of which are located in and near forest, woodland or brush-covere- d areas. They are po-tential threats too, to the efficient operation of defensive air and sea patrols, training pilots, etc. They threaten the nation's war program by diverting manpower from war industries, training camps and farms to the fighting of fires, Every patriotic citizen should re-gard helping prevent forest fires as an essential wartime duty.-- - Lieut. Gen. John L. DeWitt, while head of the Western defense command, list-ed reasons why the forest fires en-danger our national security: (1) Smoke-pall- s' from forest fires along coastal areas limit visibility of air and sea patrols. (2) Smoke haze reduces visibility from aircraft warning stations and fire lookouts. (3) Many defense plants and mili-tary establishments are located in or adjacent to forest areas and might be damaged or destroyed by major conflagrations. (4) Forest fires serve as beacons for the ene-my. The Government's Part. There are 160 national forests with about 178,000,000 federally owned acres in 42 states and two terri-tories. All are under 10 regional foresters (one in Alaska) and their staffs. National forests are protect-ed from fire by a decentralized or-ganization that is in close and con-stant touch with local conditions, problems and people. Normally, this organization in-cludes about 4,000 year-lon- g forest supervisors, forest rangers, forest guards, etc., and another 4,000 short-ter-smokechasers, lookouts, etc. But the manpower situation has been so acute during the war that the Office of Civilian Defense estab-lished the "Forest Fire Fighters Service" to help the established for-est fire protection agencies. It is reported that more than 185,000 re-cruits have joined the FFFS to date. There are 281,000,000 acres of state and privately owned forest land. Federal aid, through the For-est Service, goes to 41 states to help state foresters and private own-ers give organized cooperative for-est fire protection. Funds from state and private sources are greater than those from the federal government. However, there are over 146,000,000 acres that need, but still lack, or-ganized forest fire protection. In their efforts to prevent forest fires, the federal government and state governments have operated on a regional and state-wid- e basis. Their educational efforts on a local level have been carried through the media of newspapers, radio stations, motion picture theaters, civic organ-izations, etc. And in addition, they have used exhibits, lectures, pam-phlets, admonition signs and post-ers. The Public's Part. Above all else there is need to impress upon the public that every individual has a patriotic stake in this EMERGENCY that the prob-lem can only be solved through indi-vidual action. Specifically, the need is: 1. For the public to be careful with matches, smokes including cigarettes, cigars and pipe ashes and campfires. 2. For victory gardeners as well as farmers, ranchers, stockmen and forest industries to ask about a per mit and the law before burning grass, brush, fence rows, ferns, trash, or before starting any fires in forests. 3. For everybody to put out small fires and to report all others quickly to the nearest ranger or fire warden. Geographical Aspects. With an eye to the tremendous value of timber in our all-o- war production activities, the United States has been divided into three broad zones, each of which has been weighed and its relative importance indicated on the map which also shows the Forest Service adminis-trative regions. Before the broad zones and administrative regions were determined, war industrial ac-tivity and national defense consid-erations were studiously reviewed. Zone 1, with a relative Importance of 60, includes: 1. Three Pacific coast states plus western Montana and northwestern Idaho. 2. Most of the three Great Lakes states. 3. All or parts of 26 states from Missouri, Arkansas, east Texas and Louisiana to Maine. Zone II, with a relative impor-tance of 30, includes: 1. The area lying east of the Pa-cific coast portion of Zone I and west of the Great Plains states. 2. The area lying between the Lakes states and the Atlantic coast-Gu- lf of Mexico portion of Zone I. Zone in, with a relative impor-tance of 10, includes parts of Mon-tana and Minnesota, and all or parts of the Great Plains states of North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Texas and Okla-homa. These zones have been subdivid-ed into regions as follows, with the particular fire hazards briefly listed: Region I: (Montana and Northern Idaho): Ninety per cent of all fires here are caused by lightning, with the greatest damage done to white pine timber. The resident problem is more important than the visitor problem. Region 2: (Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas): Thirty four per cent of all fires In this region are man-cause- The vis-itor problem is more Important than the resident one, with carelessness more of a factor than intentional fire setting. Region 3: (Arizona, New Mexico): There is less of a fire problem here than in any other region. Region 4: (Utah, Nevada, most of Idaho) : In this region man-cause- d fires run from 17 to 57 per cent, varying with the locality. Careless smokers, logging operators, camp-ers, land - clearing farmers and ranchers, are the causes. Serious erosion is often caused by fires in many localities. Grass fires are a great hazard. Region 5: (California): Three-fourt- hs of all fires are man-cause- Part of this is due to the great influx of war workers, but the majority of fires are caused by residents rather than newcomers. Region 6: (Oregon, Washington): Most forest fires here are due to careless smokers, but forest indus-tries and incendiaries cause the larg-est area burned and the greatest damage. Region 7: (New England and Mid-dle Atlantic states plus Maryland, WesJ Virginia and Virginia): Again the local resident and the smoker are mainly to blame also the farm-er who burns to clear land. Region 8: (The South, from North Carolina south and west to and in-cluding Texas): The intentional burner who has believed in burning for years is the greatest problem. He is the local resident, not the visitor the white man rather than the Negro. Region 9: (the Great Lakes states, North Dakota, Iowa, Missouri, Illi-nois, Indiana, Ohio): Diverse condi-tions exist in this region with large numbers of fires and tremendous acreage burned. Ninety-seve- n per cent of all fires are man-cause- d in the following order of importance the smoker, the incendiary, the de-bris burner. Over 90 Per Cent Of Conflagrations Called Preventable Each year loyal American citizens, through carelessness and thoughtlessness, start an average osome 190,000 forest fires in the United States. This tremendous annual destruc- - tion of our timber resources has been going on relentlessly year in and year out. Now that these resources are so critically needed for the suc-- j cessful prosecution of the war, the number of forest fires must be reduced drastically in the interest of national se- - curity. In addition to its effect on our war production activity, forest fires further complicate our manpower shortage problem by draining away from critical war industries those wasted man-hour- s necessary to ex-tinguish and fight the thousands of fires that rage yearly throughout the country. The problem is one of per-sonal interest to every American. Forest fires speed up erosion of farm land by denuding watersheds. On millions of acres, forest fires in--j duce swift run-of- f, and heavy sea- - sonal flooding, resulting in serious property damage, less water stored for irrigation 'or power, and thus less food to fight for freedom. These fires also destroy wild life along with its food and cover. Un-- told numbers of deer, "birds and oth- - er wild life as well as fish" (in streams polluted by wood ashes) are crippled and killed annually be- - cause of forest fires. Prevention, Objectives of the 1944 forest fire prevention program are to, help 'speed victory by: 1. Seducing greatly the more than 210,000 forest fires occurring each year, 90 per cent of which are man-- caused and therefore, preventable. 2. Releasing manpower of which nearly one million man-day- s are tied 'up yearly in fighting forest fires. 3. Cutting down on actual and po-tential dangers and losses to such critical war materials as timber and feed for domestic stock and wild life. One Third of U. S. Is Forest, The forest empire of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, is larger than the combined area of France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, The Netherlands and the British Isles. It constitutes one-thir- d the area of the continental United . States. No region or zone is without its forests, although 60 per cent is east of the Great Plains in an area con-taining four-fifth- s of our population. The other 40 per cent is west of the Great Plains and includes most of our remaining virgin timber. It is evident therefore, that forest fires constitute a national problem which can be solved only by nationwide action. Statistical information on hand which was gathered over a five-ye-period, 1936-4- shows that an aver-- age of 210,970 forest fires rage each year throughout the nation and burn over an average of 31,233,000 acres. This represents an area much larg-er than the land area of New York state. This wartime waste repre-sents three billion feet of timber killed or enough to build 215,000 five-roo- homes for war workers. Ninety per cent of all forest fires are man-mad- The remaining 10 per cent are caused by lightning. Careless smokers and campers are responsible for starting 30 per cent of all our forest fires. Other forest fires are INTENTIONALLY set for such purposes as clearing plow-lan-burning off weed patches, logging slash, brush or debris, and although many of these fires are started law-fully, great numbers of them get out of hand because of carelessness and ignorance on the part of the burner or because of his willingness to "take a chance." Forest fires in this cate-- : gory constitute 40 PER CENT OF THE TOTAL, j In its wartime activities for 1942 the United States used more wood than steel. According to R. W. Pat-terson, undersecretary of war, tons of wood were used as against 100 million tons of steel. As a further indication of its im-portance in our wartime activities, we have the statement of Rear Adm. E. L. Cochrane in the International Woodworker, that "Every naval vessel, from the log battle-ship of the North Carolina class to the small mine sweeper, depends on wood." It is a problem then of national concern when the production of lum-ber (estimated in 1943 to be four I v.. Zone 1 Relative ' jJ MmW Aii' Importance 60 &ywWy I I Zone 2 Relative Importance iifMmvy X,7 Zone 3 Relative Importance 10 Missimo and Her Orphans ktvy y v ,yy- y- H r y ' w Uij i n W 3"fefM sis; n k. ' , '' V V J.' ilillp f Madame Chiang Kai-she- k gathered a group of orphaned Chinese girls around her when she visited the new Chinese war orphans' home, near Chungking, to attend opening ceremonies at the institution. The children, many of them too young to understand the reason for their suffering, are some of the millions who roamed over the countryside after the war had struck their towns. Let'sTace Facts Farmer Organizations Organize Pressures To Clip Price Laws By BARROW LYONS WNU Staff Correspondent WASHINGTON, D. C. One of the hardest fought behind-the-scen-battles in congress in re-cent months has been the fight to I preserve price f',BTOW7''l control to main- - tain the dent's "hld-the- - ' ??f toe" Ad-- " !y 1 ministration lead-- J x ' i ers have felt that x,,s unless virtually Xirt 1 a11 changes to the Lt.. v 1 emergency price .' Jt ji i control act were defeated, the Lyons u inflation would get his hoof inside the door; and that frbm then on there would be no stopping him until he had pulled down the house. This has seemed an arbitrary and dictatorial viewpoint to leaders of farm organizations. All over the country their clients, the farmers of America, have smarted from vari-ous OPA rulings. They have been determined to find some relief from those which have irked them the, most. Farm leaders do not wish to destroy basic price controls, how- -' ever. But as a result of the com-bined attacks of business and farm interests, price control faces today one of its recurring crises. Scores of amendments to the emergency price control act have been referred to the senate committee on banking and currency, and debates be-hind closed doors have been charged with fire and brimstone. Among the amendments which stand the best chance of acceptance are those proposed by Sen. Kenneth. S. Wherry (R., Neb.), Republican Whip. These amendments include elimination of the y limitation on the time for filing formal pro-tests against inequitable prices, au-thorization for organizations as well as individual sellers to challenge in the courts price regulations, a re-quirement that civil enforcement: proceedings be brought in the dis-- l trict where the defendant resides or; maintains a place of business, op-portunity for the defendant in price' violation proceedings to plead that the price at which he sold was no higher than parity price. Farm Group Support Recently a newspaper release sup-porting the Wherry amendments was issued by the farm group and signed: "The National Grange, by A. S. Goss, national master; Ameri-can Farm Bureau federation, by Edward O'Neal, president; National Council of Farmer Cooperatives, by John H. Davis, executive secretary, and National Cooperative Milk Pro-ducers' federation, by Charles W. Holman, secretary." When a combination like that gets behind a measure, some-thing generally gives way. This time resistance is unusually stubborn. The administration is fighting with all its power every move to weaken price controls particularly proposals which would permit prolonged legal proceedings, and thus make a law that is very difficult to ad-minister virtually Impossible to administer. But it is on the legal front that the farm leaders make their princi-pal attack. Their joint statement declares: "The legal subterfuges that OPA has employed to prevent court tests of some of its d actions are destructive of the people's re-spect for and confidence in govern- ment ... The chief reason that price ceilings on food have been rea-sonably effective has been the fact that American farmers have con- tinued to produce at the highest lev-el m history. "This production has been achieved in spite of serious handi-caps imposed by OPA as a result of inequitable ceilings, tardily an-nounced, indefinite and unjust regu- lations and widely differing and often contradictory interpretations. anT mstances' Wice regulations actions of the OPA have disregarded the will of congress. The agency has refused in instance alter instance, to make price ad- justments required by law, though these adjustments would have made Utile difference in cost of hving and would have ma! tenally increased production " not. enou space in this column to go into all of the intrica- cies of this battle. The OPA has hard made so many blunders that it is to find an unbiased audience inBthVhere 3re ffiighty few people financial sac4ce 81 Consid"able tioTnhehasfflku!edfoflPrr tors Th administra- - .'.-- JOBS AFTER THE WAR " MUST COME FEOM INDI - THERE IS A DEMA American industry be provide jobs for everyone ! ' w a job when the war is '"I idea as expressed byWashJ-- ' reaucrats is that if industr, do that kind of a job it will t evidence of failure on the private enterprise and must take over in the taJl those wanting jobs. Just how far government i, .. in making such a result imJ. for industry is well illustrated report of United States Stei' 1943. In April of 1941 the govern put a ceiling price on steel, ac' price has not been changed "1 government did not put a 'tJ price on wages or materials! 1941 wages in the steel pl!r,ts .' eraged a fraction under 93!i hour. In 1943 wages aversC fraction under $1.16 an hour "f terial prices were up in about same proportion. In 1943 the sales of the steel amounted to $1,97 6 800 that $912,900,000 was paid for just under 50 per cent. Are $126,600,000 went for taxes. I; dividends paid to stockholders li- the same as paid for a nurrfc years, but the one item that : the real story was the $3,400,r-- steel company was permitted to: aside for that rainy day when war is over. That $3,400,000 the company r permitted to make and keep ai a : serve would pay the operating ctr of its plants for less than one t That is the reserve with which provide jobs for the 340,498 err.;:: ees regardless of what the desit: may be for steel. During the year in which the was permitted to accumi a reserve of $3,400,000 with vfe to provide rainy day jobs, it pa;: the unions under the check-of- 5: tern, as dues and assessments I:: its employees; a total oi fi&s The union is not expected to j.v vide any rainy day jobs. Industry keeps pace with the if mand for more wages not bj z creased prices for its products, 1. by an increased "know-how- on fc part of American management L the case of steel that "knon-h:- supplied by management repress:: an increase in pounds of steel p-roduced per man-hou- r from 29.72 1 1902 to 53.74 in 1943. For that "k how" management, those with s-alaries of $10,000 a year or more, rt ceived less than 1 per cent ol b total amount paid for labor. Under existing conditions, wii practically no reserve perr.:" upon which to draw, cut of win! i industry to finance those rainy-da- y jobs? BURDEN ON ALL BECAUSE OF JUST ABOVE 64 MILLION pecpt in the United States have jobs fc which they are paid wages. Es: 20 of those employed must dig te into their pockets to pay the of a federal government avt employee. Dividing the populs'.i into families of five each ac means that each eight families rr,ur pay the cost of supporting an effl family. Those extra for whom must provide the food, clotSi shelter and spending money largely employed by the more UJ 200 bureaus created since 1833. K are the bureaucrats whose jobJ that of regulating and regta-:-- the American people. They W sent the burden Senator Byrd a his committee are attempM! remove from the shoulders of American taxpayers. But the ber continues to increase efforts. AUSTRALIAN WAR BILLS ARE LOWER THAN OIRS SINCE WE GOT into the war national debt has increased, up December 31, 1943, by W dollars. During approximately' Australia reduce same period national debt by 106 million debt sttn our per capita of $119 in $1,207, an increase Australia reduced her per from $767 to $737. Australia at war. Australian soldie fighting beside Americans in Evident 1 Southwest Pacific. Aussies have learned the se conductmgawarmoreeconooi, than ourselves. Possibly they give Senator Byrd and his eto valuable UP committee some NAVY to THE AMERICAN Pacific has demonstrated w land jumping" is not so ourseh slow j ess as the Japs or expected it to be. IN SO FAr" AS I BEMgg my American history i three Presidents with a deim continuing foreign P01' t0all ou ton proposed that we keep the squabbles of Europe, home and mind our oot $ only. Monroe warned au nations to keep out Wilson proposes all w sist in regulating affairs. Indians ' Entertain Chinese Air Cadets fei v '.ill 1 , yx;; ' j ' " I ' I I '''' i - , I I I v I 1 ' L - - I L '.'! KocaMMgasiKSx The symbol of the crossed hands Is "We shall fight until victory is ours," as three war leaders meet during a fiesta given by Laguna PuebU Indians in honor of 60 Chinese pilots who are training at Kirtland Field, near Albuquerque, N. M. The officer on the right is Brie Pen Roger M. Barney, . Bazooka Passes Inspection Cy - ?J ' i. y i t r' j The bazooka rocket gun meets with the approval . Theodore Green of Rhode Island, Dennis Chavez of Ne!'Lt " Chapman Rivercomb of West Virginia (1. to r.). Frn? the U. S. army dons the enemy uniform to lend reJiZ 1? "Weapons of War," held at Washington. to Observing These Precautions Would Greatly Reduce Fire Losses Campers : Before building a campfire ' Observe the state laws. If a per mit is necessary, get it from a ranger or state fire warden. 2. Scrape away around the fire all inflammable material in a circle at least five feet in diameter. Dig a hole in the center, build your fire in it, and keep your fire small. Before leaving campfire, stir the ' coals and soak them with water. Forest Industry Workers: Build and maintain safe fire lines around mills, logging camps, etc. Keep efficient spark arresters on locomotives, tractors, etc. Comply fully with state laws. Keep fire patrols on the fire job especially during dangerous fire weather, and make frequent inspec-tions for fire hazards. Be extremely careful to put out all matches and cigarettes before throw-ing them away. 4 Farmers and Ranchers: Never burn to clear crop land: Without getting a permit from a ranger or fire warden, if state laws require it. , Without scraping a trail or plow-ing around for safety. Without having plenty of help on the job. During unusually hot or dry or windy weather. Without beating out all smoulder-ing grass after burning is finished.