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i i THE PROGRESSIVE OPINION U. S: School System Faces Greatest Crisis in History Selective Service Auxiliary Branches Make Heavy Draft on Teaching Personnel; Higher Wages Necessary. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, Union Trust Building Washington, D. C. Recently, the fate of the Churchill government hung on school teach-ers' salaries. The opposition threat-ened to defeat a government-sponsore- d measure because it didn't pro-vide for making women teachers' salaries equal to men's. The opposi-tion finally yielded for the sake of harmony but the issue is not dead. Today a report outlining what are described as "revolutionary changes to raise the social status of teachers in Great Britain and make their profession attractive" is before Par-liament. Any informed Englishman admits that the American public school sys-tem offers far more to the general public than the British system. At the same time, our own school system faces one of the greatest crises in its history and, likewise, some of the greatest changes. One simple reason for the crisis can be stated in a sentence: American schools have lost 200,000 competent, d teachers since Pearl Harbor. Selective service and voluntary enlistment have made a heavy draft on the men, and you have no idea how many WACs and WAVES, Ma-rines and SPARS stepped out of the schoolroom into their natty uni-forms. Of course, high wages in industry lured many a teacher from the three Rs, too. And why not? The aver-age teacher's salary is only about $1,550 a year. This year 44,000 teachers were paid less than $260 a year. That wouldn't buy slacks and "old fash-ioned-for a lady r. Two hundred fifty-fou- r thousand teachers received under a hundred dollars a month. My figures are from the Journal of the National Education association. "Already many classrooms have been closed," says this periodicat, "and thousands of others are so overcrowded that effective teach-ing is impossible." If these trends continue much longer, the magazine predicts, education will be cut off at its source right at a time when it has a tremendous job ahead re-educating a generation which has been subjected to highly abnormal surroundings and educating another which will have to help recreate a normal, if a somewhat altered, world. Higher Salaries Needed In this country, as in England, the first step in the solution of the problem is higher salaries, the next is better working conditions, the third is an active campaign to at-tract young people to the profes-sion. ' But before these steps are accom-plished, an interim effort is neces-sary, and it has already begun an organized effort urging capable high school seniors to prepare for the teaching profession. Many state groups have be-gun campaigns of various kinds, and the National Education associ-ation, itself, has appropriated $8,500 for this purpose. Hundreds of thou-sands of pamphlets and leaflets have been prepared and distributed. Realizing that those attractive post-ers of girls in uniforms had a lot to do with recruiting women for the armed services, one of the artists who helped lure private, sergeant or lieutenant Smith out of the school house, has been hired to try to lure her back when the war is over, or ' attract her young civilian sister. I haven't seen one of these posters yet but I hope th'ey do the job; for the' task ahead for the teacher and the opportunities that the profes-sion will offer are both bound to " expand tremendously due to the situation which will follow the war. This will spring from two causes The first is a part of a universal demand which is already being heard abroad as weU as at home, when any group, formal or informal, gets together to talk over postwar conditions. Plenty of ridicule is hurled by the hard-heade- d citizens at the postwar planners whose name is legion. But congress has already learned that there is one brass-tack- s phase of can't be labelled as amfable and .snored. That is exemplified in the "GI bill of rights" which includes the "billion dollar program" for education for returning veterans. Educational Demands The bill will pass congress and will be signed. The soldier, far more vocal than he has ever been before, and representing the great-est group of voters with a single-ness of purpost on the subject of "GI rights" that congress has ever faced, is going to get what he wants. And the demand for greater edu-cational opportunities will not be limited to the veteran. Careful estimates indicate ' that, to carry out the postwar education program for veterans, and their children, the present per-sonnel will have to be increased 50 per cent. This, of course, includes besides teachers, administrators, li-brarians, clerks, nurses, janitors and bus drivers, nearly a million and a half persons. These figures give you an indication of the num-ber of persons who will be drawn into the profession and its allied ac-tivities if the plans go through. The second reason why we can expect a stimulation in the whole field of education is because there is a very strong feeling that the op-portunities for learning must be greatly broadened. As a result of the social changes preceding and during the war, the strong voice of the common man has been raised, demanding that cultural as well as economic benefits be more widely distributed. The thoughtful educa-tors realize that a wider background of knowedge must be furnished to everyone, that technical and profes-sional courses must be grounded on a firmer base of general knowledge. Already there is a feeling of re-action against the emphasis which the war has placed on purely mate-rial subjects, on a purely techni-cal or scientific education. This is bound to call for a greater share of what might be called spiritual culture. And at the other end of the spectrum, also .a demand for train-ing in health and physical develop-ment. Educators themselves have their troubles from within as well as from without. Of late, there has been pressure by certain groups, like the National Association of Manufac-turers, anxious to see that nothing is taught that might endanger what they define as the "free enterprise" system, although not all business-men agree on what free enterprise is or that they like it too free. There have also been many con-flicts within and among institutions of higher learning, like the one in my own alma mater, the University of Chicago, where President Hutchins and his followers want to get back to "first principles" with an emphasis on the philosophers; and others lean toward a more utili-tarian training. The "ex-perimental" colleges like Antioch, stressing individual development and social responsibility, do not agree with Hutchins nor even among themselves. But it would seem that the trend of the times agrees with the recent edict of a n educator who said that con-cern with the development of the individual and concern with society must be the twin goals of education. In any case, it is clear that never before in our history have the school teacher and the professor been offered such a challenge. Never before has the proverb which says "wisdom is the principle thing, therefore, get wisdom" been more widely heeded; never has the rest of the abjuration of King Solo-mon been more important: "and with all thy getting, get under-standing." I FORTY ACRES AND A JEEP . It never rains but it pours. With the sheep in the meadow, the cows in the corn, and even the scarecrow alone and forlorn for want of manpower to help out, the department of agriculture now sends out the warning that after the war there won't be enough farms in the country to hold all the people who will be crying for 40 acres and a say that five million alone, a lot of whom don't know a spade from a club, may try to get their living from the soil when ' peace comes. CLASSIFIED ! DEPARTMENT PERSONAL Check Up On Yourself. Send 10c coin or stamps for Psychological Chart prepared by world famed teacher. Mt. Washington Pubs., ; S880-S- 2 San Rafael, Los Angeles, 31, Calif. " Used Cars Trailers BIlIPmOBJLES j OFFICE EQUIPMENT WE BUT AND SELL Office Furniture, Files, Typewriters, Add- - ine Machines. Safes, Cash Registers. SALT LAKE DESK EXCHANGE S5 Wast Broadway, Salt Laka City, Utah, j HELP WANTED AUTO MECHANICS BODY-FENDE- R REPAIRMEN j Permanent Employment for the duration f and after the war. Fine Income, Saturday afternoons off. Vacations with pay. Pleas-ant working conditions. Get set now with a strong and reputable company. Write1 FRED A. CARLESON COMPANY Fontiac-Cadilla- o Distributors 635 South Main, Salt Lake City, Utah. ' Mailing Slip Covers Is No Trick at All Making Slipcovers ONCE you know how to go about really no trick at all to make your own slip covers ! Thou-sands of American women are be-coming expert rs and upholsterers the slipcover instructions in this design will show you how to cut, fit and finish covers for your chairs and sofa. To obtain complete instructions on "How To Make Slipcovers" (Pattern No. 5727) send 16 cents in coin, your name, address and the pattern number. SEWING CIRCLE NEEDLEWORK 149 New Montgomery S. San Francisco, Calif. Enclose 15 cents (plus one cent to cover cost of mailing) for Pattern No Name .... Address builds the Jrugged light Truck j If Passenger Car i I i If Light Trocfor I If Power Plant " WHY BE A SLAVE TO HARSH LAXATIVES? Simple Fresh Fruit Drink Has Restored Millions to Normal Regularity I Here's a way to overcome' without harsh laxatives. Drink juice of 1 Sunkist Lemon in a glass of water first thing on arising. Most people find this all they need stimulates normal bowel ac-tion day after day ! Lemon and water is good for you. Lemons are among the rich-est sources of vitamin C, which combats fatigue, helps resist Colds and infections. They supply valu-able amounts of vitamins B, and P. They pep up appetite. They alkalinize, aid digestion. Lemon and water has a fresh tang too clears the mouth, wakes you up, starts you going. Try this grand wake-u- p drink 10 mornings. See if it doesn't help Use California Sunkist ' Lou! SNAPPY FACTS ABOUT J) RUBBER Synthetic inner tubes need lubrication before being in-serted in a casing. Partially inflate the tube and use ordi-nary pure soapsuds as a lubricant in the absence of a. special tube lubrication prep-aration. Dry synthetic tubes do not "slide" in the tire and unless lubricated may not ad-just themselves properly. Proponents of the continuance of our synthetic rubber insurance policy after the war hold that jungle growth on the rubber plantations and the probability of the Japs wrecking the plantation equipment may mean a loss of two years before normal levels of rubber production can be realized. REGcodricii &IMEXSANA I f7TT, SOOTHING MEDICATED POWDER SKUE"' 4 "Applicator ,1 ' ' "BU,CK UAF 40I JUSI II M II GO MUCH FARTHER I DASH IN FEATHERS. . Jt j DON'T LET CONSTIPATE SLOW YOU UP When bowels are sluggish and you 'eel irritable, headachy do as millions d - chew 1 , the modern chewing. gum laiativt Simply chew before you gc to bed, taking only in accordance with package directions sleep without being dis-turbed. Nex morning gentle, thorough hef, helping you feel swell again. Try Tastei good, is handy economical. A generous family supply rtEN-A-MliiTl-ol S0E,SWs) Do You Hate HOT FLASHES? J you suffer from hot flashes, feel "MA, nervous, a bit blue at times " due to the functional "middle-PE-period peculiar to women try Mdla E. Plnkham's Vegetable Com-pound to relieve such symptoms. Taken regularly Plnkham's Com-pound helps build up resistance aEalnst such annoying symptoms. Plnkham's Compound is made specially for women it: helps na-"- " and that's the kind of medl-n- e to buyl Follow label directions. YDIA E. PINKHAM'S WNU W 2444 Help Them Cleanse the Blood of Harmful Body Waste Your kidneyt are constantly filtering waflte matter from the blood stream. But kidneys sometimes laft in their work do not act as Nature intended tail to re-move impurities that, il retained, may poison the system and upset the wool body machinery. Symptoms may be nneRing backache, persistent headache, attacks of dizziness, getting up nights, swelling, puffin era under the eyes a feeiing of nervous auxiety and loss of pep and strength. Other signs of kidney or bladder dis-order are sometimes burning, scanty or too frequent urination. There should be nv doubt that prompt treatment is wiser than neglect. Use Doan't Pillt. Doan' have been winning new friends for more than forty years. They have a natioo-wid- e reputation. Are recommended by grateful people the country over. Ask your neighbor! 4 . WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS Allied Gains Mark Italy Battle; Plan Four-Pow- er Peace Meeting; 5,000,000 U. S. Men Overseas Released by Western Newspaper Union. (EDITOR'S NOTE: When opinions are expressed In these columns, they are those or Western Newspaper Union's news analysts and not necessarily of this newspaper.) FOREIGN POLICY: F. D. R.'s Stand Closely paralleling the Republican party's celebrated Mackinac Island declaration on foreign policy, Presi-dent Roosevelt declared for main-tenance of U. S. sovereignty or in the activities of any postwar organization to secure peace. Said Gerald Nye (N. D.) : "It is only too apparent in the light of his statement, that the door has been opened for Roosevelt to become the No. 1 nationalist or isolationist in the campaign next fall if the Republicans adopt a plat-form tying them to international-ism. . . " President Roosevelt's declaration came during the course of a press conference, in which he envisaged an international organization of na-tions cooperating freely and closely in the preservation of peace to pre-vent ' future aggression. New Procedure President Roosevelt made his statement shortly after Secretary of State Cordell Hull had issued invita-tions to Great Britain, Russia and China to participate in discussions of forming a postwar peace organi-zation following consultations with members of the senate's foreign re-lations committee. By conferring with the senators, the administration sought to elimi-nate partisanship from the formu-lation of postwar foreign policy, and, also, avoid Pres. Woodrow Wil-son's mistake of seeking senatorial sanction for the World War I Peace Treaty without previously consult-ing the chamber on its provisions during its composition. In Secretary Hull's talks with the senators, it was revealed that some of them objected to formal commit-ment to any organization of enforc-ing postwar peace until the U. S. was apprized of the nature of the final settlement. PACIFIC: Bloody Episode Bloody as any of the fighting in the South Pacific was the U. S. thrust against the enemy airfield on Biak island off Dutch New Guinea, with reinforcements called in to aid in the suppression of the stubborn foe. With access to the airfield along a roadway below a commanding ridge doughboys found themselves under sight of entrenched enemy snipers in the brush above, and when they climbed to the level of the airdrome, they encountered formations of Jap-anese tanks. Under cover of the big guns of the 7th naval fleet, however, reinforce-ments were landed, and doughboys again pressed on the airfield, cap-ture of which would assure the U. S. of another link in the chain of air bases being established in the north-western New Guinea area for cov-er for the grand assault on the Philippines or Indies. PRICE CONTROL: Parity Problem Extension of the OPA for 18 months appeared certain only after a bitter fight over Sen. John Bank-head- 's amendment, calling for re-adjustment of textile prices to re-flect parity returns on cotton to farmers. Headed by Sen. Robert Wagner (N. Y.), opponents of the Bankhead-amendmen-claimed that it would lead to similar demands by other segments of industry, thus increas- - LABOR: Pressure Effective As a result of strong union pres-sure exerted by 8.000 members of the CIO's United Automobile Work-ers, government agencies an-nounced plans for the resumption ol operations at two plants of the Brewster Aeronautical Corp. in New York and Pennsylvania. Brought to a head when 5,500 UAW members of Brewster's New York plant refused to leave the premises for two days after being discharged due to the navy's cancellation of contracts with the company for Cor-sair airplanes, the War Production board determined to reopen the plant for the manufacture of spare parts if other concerns making Cor-sairs can use them. Earlier, the navy announced it would take over Brewster's Penn-sylvania plant and keep its 2,500 employees working. PEARL HARBOR: Trial Delay Efforts of Sen. Homer Ferguson (Mich.) to direct the secretaries of war and navy to institute court mar-tia- l proceedings against Adm. Hus-band E. Kimmel and Maj. Gen. Walter C. Short for the Pearl Har-bor debacle were frustrated by the senate's judiciary committee. Instead the committee approved a resolution calling upon the taries to immediately begin an vestigation into the catastrophe, with a .view toward ordering court martial proceedings if justified by the facts uncovered. During the course of the commit-tee's deliberations, it was revealed that Kimmel was Anxious to be tried in open court whenever a trial rrfight be held without impairing the war effort Declaring that any delays might be personally disadvanta-geous to him because of difficulties of later assembling evidence and witnesses, Kimmel said that the whole story of Pearl Harbor has not been told. Fifteen Husbands When the government discovered that it was sending four dependency allot-ment checks to one woman who claimed to be the legal wife of four soldiers, the FBI undertook an investigation. Upon probing the case, the FBI learned ' that not only had Marion Horn been married to the four servicemen without bother ing to divorce any of them, but she also had been wedded to 11 other men with-out a legal separation in any case. Charged with fraudulently receiving benefits under the servicemen's depend-ents' allowance act, Mrs. Horn remarked about her marriage activities by declar-ing- : "I didn't mean to do anything wrong. I just didn't bother with di-vorces' Said her 15th husband, serving in the marine corps: "She is a fine woman, but a little absent-minde- ..." SUPREME COURT: Forced Testimony Although the federal government itself cannot accept evidence against an individual which it ob-tains against his will, it can use such evidence if supplied by state officials and turned over to it for a trial, the Supreme court ruled in a divided opinion. In a seven to one decision, the court upheld Wisconsin's 3 per cent tax on dividends paid out of earn-ings within the state on the grounds that: ". . . It (Wisconsin) has af-forded protection and benefits to . . . corporate activities and trans-actions within the state . . . giving rise to the income of stockhold-ers. ..." In ' dissenting against the ma-jority's opinion in the first case ad-mitting an individual's forced testi-mony in federal courts if obtained by state officials, the minority de-clared: "... The use of testimony obtained by compulsory discovery to convict an accused must be con-sidered 'shocking to the universal sense of justice' and offensive to the common and fundamental ideas of fairness and right." CHINA: New Drive As the Chinese pressed their drive in the southwest to join up with Lieut. Gen. Joseph Stilwell's forces in Burma and open a supply road to the embattled country, no less than 180.000 Japanese opened a big offensive farther to the east in an apparent effort to counteract any projected Allied operations resulting from new communication lines. The Jap offensive got under way shortly after the loss of momentum of their previous drive farther to the north. Already firmly in control of the northeastern section of China where the rich resources and abundant manpower have been put to work in the Japanese industrial machine, the enemy's new drive appears de-signed to thwart any Allied push to open up the coastal country in the region and use it as base for gen-eral operations on the mainland. OLD AGE The average monthly check to persons receiving old age assistance from state bureaus was $26.99 in February. The southwestern states disbursed the most, with California paying $47.14 and Colorado $41.17. Arizona doled out $38.29. The southern states were at the other end of the scale. Mississippi paid the lowest sum, $9. '.'2, und Ken-tucky came next with $10.04. Louisiana topped this section with $21.29. Middlewestern states ranged from $22 to $30 in payments. EUROPE: Allied Progress Allied troops cracked the last Ger-man defense line on the western end of the front below Rome as enemy forces completed their withdrawal to the east, and the guttering dome of St. Peter's came first into view of fighting U. S. doughboys, wading through hails of Nazi fire. As Allied forces closed on the Eternal City and the enemy fell back, U. S. and British bombers con-tinued their invasion bombardment --jVih . 1 ; tt n 1 $ y I p, , i. 1 Rome With water supply blasted, Italian women do their washing in streets. of western Europe, and Russian troops in the east withstood a strong Nazi assault designed to upset their alignment for their scheduled big push. By pulling back the bulk of his 10th army which opposed the Allied onslaught in the Cassino area, Nazi Marshal Kesselring managed to save them from complete annihila-tion, but U. S. and British forces exacted a heavy toll in the desper-ate, rearguard fighting, and their battle-plane- s ranged along the whole line of enemy retreat, ' shooting up marching columns and vehicles. As the battle-cloud- s rumbled over Rome, Pope Pius XII appealed against the principle of total victory, declaring: total victory or complete annihilation ". . . works as a stimu-lant for prolongation of the war, even with those who . . . would be inclined to a reasonable peace." Over There ' With 3,657,000 U. S. army men overseas, Secretary of War Henry Stimson declared that they are ". . . poised to strike victory win-ning blows against Germany and Japan by land, sea and air." At the same' time, the navy re-vealed that it had 1,566,000 men afloat or on foreign duty, with 900,- - 000 more in transit or in training for combat service. The army's 3,657,000 men overseas represented 47 per cent of total strength, and this would be boosted to 5,000,000 men, or two-thir- of total strength, by the end of 1944, Secretary Stimson said. Declaring that disposition of troops overseas was in conformance with plans of the high command, Secretary Stimson said early trans-port of forces was to plug holes in the Allies' tottering lines, and later shipments were to crack the Axis' outer defenses for the grand assault, for which preparations long have been under way. GOVERNORS: State Program Meeting in Hershey, Pa., the governors called upon the fed-er-government to formulate a postwar policy on public works which might possibly fit into their own extensive plans for such proj-ects. In addition, the governors de-clared for: 1. The individual states continued administration of unemployment in-surance in the estimation of their probable postwar unemployment and the solvency of their insurance funds, the provision for adequate re-serves, and development of plans for quick payments; 2. Future convocation of a federal-- ! state tax parley to overhaul the na-tion's entire tax structure and pro- - vide each governmental division with sufficient funds for operation; 3. Postponement in the formula-tion of a postwar military policy and army until the war's end offers an opportunity to judge the extent of our responsibilities. Retention of the national guards'as provided in the act of 1916. MISCELLANY WHEEL TRACTORS: During the week ending May 27, production of farm-typ- e wheel tractors reached the highest point yet attained. In jthat week 6,098 units were made, the War Production board reports, Average for the preceding five weeks had been 5,906 tractors. Total made in 11 months since the start of the farm year on July 1, 1943, is about 200,000 machines. Senators Bankhcad (left) and Wagner. ing the general price level, giving rise to pressure for higher wages, and, in all, destroying the economic stabilization of the last few years. In advocating approval of the amendment, its supporters pointed out that the original stabilization act directed that ceilings were to re-flect parity prices for farm com-modities. Supporters also contended that readjustment of prices of cheap-textile-would lead to the greater production of such goods, thus di-rectly benefitting low income groups now compelled to purchase higher quality material. War-Plan- es American aircraft factories are now turning out far more war planes than both Germany and Japan combined, latest reports show. The United States is now pro-ducing at the rate of 100,000 planes a year, as compared with 21,600 for Germany and 14,000 for Japan. The British empire and the United States together have made about 300,000 planes since Great Britain entered the war, while the Axis re-portedly produced 151,000 in the same period. Flying Boxcars Army and navy ships of the air are properly referred to as "fly-ing boxcars." With normal range I of 3,000 miles and capacity of 30,-0- pounds, these planes are play- - -- ing a yital part in winning the war. Tractors, trucks, tanks, and a wide variety of army equip- - ment is transported by air to the battle fronts. A hos- - ; pital was flown from St. Louis to - Nome, Alaska, and was in opera- - tion 36 hours after leaving St. j Louis. t Beauty of Truth Beauty is that aspect of the Truth which attracts us to itself. I BR I E F S y Baukhage suffering from pre-in- - Germans advised to iitiers have been may be no hot water.) Manpower commission. According to WFA, an estimated 4 000 000 extra farm workers will be needed this year; about 1,200,000 will be boys and girls under 18 years of age and about 800,000 will be women. In Ontario alone there are more than 30 million tons of salt deposits, enough to supply the entire world for 100,000 years.