Show united states magazine SANUEL SAMUEL ELLIOT COVES COUES AND HIS THEORY OP OF ASTRONOMY MR COUES is a graduate of harvard university and resides in portsmouth Porto month new hampshire I 1 though we believe he has a temporary residence at present ia in washington he has an intellect I 1 peculiarly adapted to philosophical speculations to tracing out analogies and arriving at general laws Hio outlines of mechanical philosophy a volume published two or three years ago is certainly a remarkable book presenting a new theory U 0 MOTION in th the material world with hu an array of striking facts and acute which if they do not entirely convince the reader of the truth of the new theory will har harajly dl 7 fait fail to stogger his fuith faith in the old in i that work work lie attempts to prove that the planets a are not kept in their orbits by the nice balan balancing chig of centripetal and centrifugal forces according to the newtonian theory he does not believe that inert matter has any power to act on distant matter he believes that FORCE or that which causes motion I 1 is something diff different larent from matter something something which is inherent in all mattery matter or pervades an and floats through all iatter and that bodies move by the force which is iri hi themselves and hot by puy any power which distant bodies have over therb them according to his hi theory the earth is not attracted and chained in her orbit by the sun suit but is her 1 own free and independent locomotive moving in in I 1 the unerring path marked out for her in the creation I 1 and obeying the mysterious and perfect law of force measured to io her in the beginning this very bold theory supported by many ingenious arguien arguments ts has not yet attracted very general aft attention ution though it has been honorably noticed by a few leading magazines and journals in this country and england if it is founded in truth it will doubtless have to share the fito fat of nearly all important innovations in established science and patiently bide its time there is no danger of the old professors receiving it with acclamation cla clar mation nation even though the ariti arguments ments were ere a perfect demonstration but it was not out our design at present to make ake more than a passing allusion to this work 0 mr cones we may perhaps recur to it again another time for some two years past mr coues has been deeply engaged in an examination of the science of astronomy in which he has developed some new and striking frits and Is 14 laboring to extend and generalize I 1 them into a system it was to this branch of his bis labors that w we e pr proposed posed 16 to invite attention ip the present pi resent notice tj by endeavoring to give some idea I 1 as briefly briedy and intelligibly as we can of the new I 1 points lie he has mode made and the groundwork of his theory he lias pu published is xe severa several articles on subject wi within in the t e p past t year in the national t a ancer at washington ashin u and it is ia understood he is ia preparing a volume on astronomy for the 0 press mr cona hn ais discovered covered many curious facts of et relationship among the heavenly adheres ap heres botne or of which he believes will greatly ll 11 y the knowledge of the ha boundaries of that beautiful wad and sublime science oneo one of the most moat important and inter eating p points oin i ts presented by mr coues cones is a ink method hod of calculating the periodic c time of revolution of a planet it by y its distance from the ibe sun and vice versa to tc calculate the distance from the sun by b the knol known n pe period of revolution this is porn somewhat I 1 similar to one of keilers Kep lers great laws which jarms forms such a beautiful corner stone in hi the krand grand tem temple le of astronomy but itis it is a step beyond it keppers Ke keilers Kep piers lers method requires three terms ta to find a fourth that of mr coues cones requires but one term I 1 to find a second the law lav of if kepler to which we allude is this the squares of the periodic times of the planets are to each ot other heras as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun A regu I 1 lar far proposition in tho the rule of if we know the periodic time and distance of one plan I 1 I 1 et an and either deither the tune or distance of another planet we then have three terms div given ell and can I 1 find forthe for jahe squares of the times and the ib hea north 0 the Ji distances stances are ani in proportion but bt bj by y t the h 5 formula of mr cones aes ues the time of a planets revolution can be calculated calculate 4 from its own distance di tance or tt ats distance sun oun jean cau be calculated from its own period of revolution tle bt basis sis of his formula w in the ratio of the circumference I 1 cum ference of f a elicit circe to its diameter namely the mathematician need not smile at be simplicity ftc f our stater statement riep if in a popular maga Onoe we eq endeavor deavor to speak to the be understanding of who aea are not mathematicians the circumference of a orele circle then is a little more I 1 ates three diree umee the length of its diameter if the diameter for instance is one inch the circumference is a utu more than t three fue f iea in length and the fraction can be expressed in decimals to any indefinite extent hence tha th expression is called the ratio of f circumference to diameter and this number multiplied d into itself produces which ah is the square of the ratio without stating the formula mathematically we will state in the same plain la schoolboy manner ner how one of the uma sums is worked out suppose we know the meau mean distance of the earth from the sun and wish to calculate from this the period of iti st annual revolution we divide the distance by the of the ifie ratio then extract the square root of the quotient then multiply this square root into li ito the given distance and the product will be the period of revolution but in order that the answer shall he 40 expressed in solar days the distance with which we work must be expressed to in solar diameters that is by using the suns diameter I 1 for the unit of measure thus the distance of the earth from the sun by the method 0 of r M mr coues cones is and a fraction fhe expresses es it thus divided by gives all 11 1 and the square root of is and multiplied into gly gives days and 22 hundredths ofa of a day or the annual revolution of tile the earth we have made this wie one simple statement ta in order to give some idea of the process mr coues cones believes that the sun he planets and their satellites itei are all governed by one uniform law of mot motion loxi and that the diameter of the sun and the time of it its rotation on its axis con statute the grand key note to which all the planets and satellites of the solar system respond with mathematical exactness in their distances diameters and revolutions producing that perfect harmony and music of the 11 even which is said to have been actually heird heard at times by the ancient philosopher pythagoras mr cones believes that his theory gives the exact diameter of the sun and the time of its rotation on its I 1 ts axis that is admitting the mean li ameter 0 of f the earth to be miles as tt it is given by the best beat authorities the theory of mr cones would make the diameter of the sun miles that diameter is put lint down in the books I 1 at about but there are independent reasons for presuming that this number is too large and it is admitted that the measurement of the suns diameter by instruments cannot be relied upon within ten thousand miles received science therefore can give no demonstration to show that the theory of mr coues cones does not indicate correctly the edns suns dl diameter ameter in the laws of motion mr coues cones considers the satellite as apart a part and parcel of the planet which idea is iii advanced also by some other astronomers hence in the distance of the earth from the sun he includes the mean distance of the moon from the earth the alie moon at the full representing the extreme extent of thil the from the sun among the curious harmonies and coincidences developed v eloped by mr coues cones we may mention one or two la laying ying aside a small fraction and using the terms in round numbers so as to be more easily comprehended a hundred and ten diameters of the earth equal the diameter of the sun A hundred and ten diameters dia of the sun equal the distance of the earth from the sun and a hundred and ten diameters of the moon equal the distance of the moon from the earth mr coues cones divides the planets of the solar tom tern into families or groups the first group includes those anse below the asteroids viz mercury earth and moon and mars he believes belaev es that h at venus which is a twin planet with the earth in in size has also a satellite he has applied his theory very fully to the lite relations existing in this first group and states his hig conclusions with a great bealor confidence with regard to the second group he is of opinion that a planet or two yet remain to be d discovered I 1 we do not prof ss as to be familiar with the se science of astronomy tut but be believing I 1 ieving wit wih h the I 1 great newton ewton that nature is pleased ath simplicity pi city these developer rients of mr cones indicating d di t I 1 g res simplicity inthe inthe relation of the hav heavenly i ay bodies struck us with much force and induced us ua to believe them worthy of the attention of the masters of the science even though they do not come from a professor proffesor sor we hope mr coues cones may be able to pursue his investigations till he hershall shall he be crowned with brilliant success we have seen one or two attempts to invalidate iness biess his reasoning but none that seemed to us at all conclusive chemistry and other sciences are making new discoveries in the simple harmonies of nature and why should not astronomy t As a fitting sequel to our remarks remark we append one of the articles of mr cones which have appeared in the national it mity may perhaps haps have been intended intruded as a sort of introductory chapter to his theory of astronomy t I 1 ahe symmetry of the solar system jy by Sain samuel tuel laliot cows all forms resemble yet none is the sam same as another and the whole or of the living points to a deep hidden law points to a sacred riddle what is sym symmetry metri if we draw lines on a piece of paper and before the ink is dry daiy fold the paper in the middle of the random scratches of the pen the lines will be repeated on the opposite side and a symmetrical figure is the result because however irregular and confused were the lines as at first made each line has imprinted itself opposite and there ensula ensues a balance of parts which constitutes symmetry A symmetrical building has the same height beight the some same length same finish and appendages on each sido of the central ahe the architect has repeated his work without a variation of plan lie he lias has enlarged the edifice without a change of the constructive idea he formed one part is wisely constructed and the wisely constructed whole is a repetition of perfect parts it is therefore congruity resulting from unity of design which gives the symmetry of structure ip in the works of nature mature ehl congruity aej and tani unity of design is exhibited in a most wonderful biffl manner we observe symmetry everywhere as the bible declares all things are double against I 1 another the limbs of an animal are duplicates tes its body on the one side of the medial line is the counterpart of the body on the other side one animal is the type of another of tha same family this congruity extends between families races classes and orders of the animal kingdom the animal fades away by an insensible grad AdOll into the vegetable and the vegetable into tile mineral kingdom element also corresponds to element awl this world itself to other worlds one dl division of the solar system to another group of the same system and the great system itself corresponds to the other iother systems of spheres which revolve around the great centre of the universe there is no break in the creation no disjoint ed members no isolation of parts one style or general character subdues the most laiying into the the common expression creation is an exten sion of divine wisdom the most min minute ate part is is perfect fact anti and the genei general al perfection it id a repetition of these perfect i parts symmetry is then the many signatures of the one archy archetypal al seal it is the participation of all things in the prevailing preva diug and immutable wisdom of god the study of the sy symmetry minetry of die solar system iam is the great work of the astronomer and an all his bis researches in this direction will ill bring to him aduA a due reward becan he can know of remote WOWS worlds because of this world he can estimate the magnitudes distances and periods of afir afar off spheres because there are magnitudes distances and periods which he can measure he can appreciate the beauty and sublimity of the heavens because he feels the beauty and sublimity a of that of creation which lies open to his eye comred ou our i r view embrace the solar system at one glance merethe were the full depths of space thrown open to our sight the symmetry of the js gheres heres would open upon us in awful st sublimity ch 0 ing in ou oar rears ears ail things we are double alet one ai but our view is limited the glory of the heavens liei burled irk in the obscurity rity of i distance stance li we must look around and about us un and comprehending pre the visible objects ascend by toilsome steps for the minute to the grand gravid to the un unsown own from the known every da day y widening the horizon and enlarging the view let us recall the symme symmetry iry bt 6 one simple wild flower of the myriads of uch growing gro wine V in the fields fo foret rents and on the mountain tops the segments of it scup of its petals of its stamen or style are regular equal and alike every part of athas it has a corresponding part even th the tints and shades ibanes ot color briotte on bri one orte side are re created on the other side we could draw the eted joer ver reconstructing it 1 from one of its smallest I 1 1 Agi iiii a leaf declares the form of the tree on which it grew its petiole or foot at jk is an analogue of the trunk of the tree being compa rati veTy vily long or short as is the trunk of the tree from the ground to the mohit point of the offset of its first branches the veins of the leaf as gb they e extend r the center or morbid vein shoot ou out t at the barge same angle as shoot out the brandies hea from the stem bf the trod tree and the veins are whirled reticulated cu or otherwise distributed as are aie the branches A leaf thus gives a minature drawing of its parent trie tree it writes down on its uny tiny page the chara character clet of 4 the great vegetable organization of which it is a minute appendage compare the leaves of 66 two strawberry plants one bearing a red the other a white berry both leav leaves es are or of the same form serrated alike and of the same shade of green but on the apex or of the one leaf there will be found a RED dot while in the sayne same position on theother the other leaf will be seelia seen a WHITE dot as marks or indices of the color cobor of the I 1 11 fruit I 1 I 1 gayler could reconstruct an animal from a small fragment of one of its bones and teach of its babits and food and generally of its ita chir character acter the bit of bone under his o oye eye ye grew to the perfect bone conjoined with it became its fellow hone the skeleton appeared re clad with its flesh and the muscle seemed to be covered with a skin spotted and colored as when the animal a thousand years ago had made the forest to tremble beneath |