Uncle Valte POULTRY FLOCKS Ahototy Baldwin GUINEAS NEED LITTLE CARE Fowls Are Usually Raised in Small: Flocks on Largo Farm Pearl 11 Most Popular. , t SPARING THE ROD (( SI came past Jlmuelsons A (Prepared by the United States Depart-- 1 ment of Agriculture.) Many hotels and restaurants in The j house this morning, said the asses sor, I saw him applying a buggy-whi- p large cities are eager to secure prime; d to his boy with a zeal young guineas, and they are often j worthy a better cause. I think a man served at banquets and club dinners should be' arrested and punished for as a special delicacy.. When well ap-- j such an offense. cooked, guineas are attractive There are many pearance, although darker than com-- 1 arguments for and mon fowls. The flesh of young birds against corporal is tender and of especially fine; punishment, ob- flavor, resembling that of wild game.) served the village Like all other fowl, old guineas arej and very likely to be tough and rather) patriarch, those arguments dry. A few of the large poultry raisers.! have been handed back and forth particularly those who are within easy! for something like reach of the large Eastern markets,! two thousand make a practice of raising a hundred; years, and the or so guineas each year, but the great! question Is as far majority of guineas are raised in small from ' being settled, at the hour of going to press, as It was when Caesar double-crosse- d the Rubicon. I believe that every man must be his own judge about the management of his family. Jimuelson Strikes me as an excellent citizen, and he should be a' successful parent. If he finds it on necessary to wear out a buggy-whi- p his heir, I have no doubt that the provocation is sufficient. If his policy is wrong he is pretty sure to realize it before long and change his tactics; meanwhile outsiders have no reason to butt in, and the idea of calling the police Is perfectly ridiculous. My father was an man who believed that an ounce of birch was better than a ton of education. He kept a small sapling behind Male and Female Guinea Fowl Differ the kitchen door and applied It to my Little in Appearance. The Hdlmet person whenever I violated the by and Wattles of the Male (on Left) laws governing our happy home. I Are Larger Than Those of tho Fethink he probably carried his theory male (on Right). to extremes; whipping me became a sort of dissipation with him. But I flocks of from 10 to 25 upon farms in am willing to admit that his treatment the Middle West and In the South. did me good, and I cant Imagine what Domesticated guinea fowl are of three varieties Pearl, White and would have become of me but for It. Lavender. The Pearl Is by far the My mother believed In moral suasion, and used to plead and argue with most popular. It has a purplish-gra- y me, but I cant remember that her tenplumage regularly dotted or pearled der eloquence ever prevented me from with white and is so handspme that breaking into a melon patch or fishing frequently the feathers are used for ; in forbidden waters. Her method ornamental purposes. . Guinea hens usually begin laying In probably would have been successful in many cases. There are boys who April or May, those In the South laying are responsive to such appeals, but I earlier than thpse in the North. A was headstrong. as a.government mule short time before the opening of the and when I wanted to do something it laying, period the hens with their took more than gentle counsel tp head mates begin searching for suitable me off. nesting places among the 'weeds and I had a profound respect for that brush along the fences or in the fields. sapling behind the door. It always In this search the male takes .as acseemed to be quivering with impa- tive an interest as his mate, and when tience to get at me, and my father re- a suitable location is found both help garded it with loving glances. It used to dig out the nest and make it into to mystify me how he heard of every--thin- g suitable shape. I did. There was no such a thing Each day as tbe hen goes to the nest as concealing a crime or misdemeanor to lay the male accompanies her and from him. remains nearby until she comes off. Id swipe a few apples from a farm- Should anyone approach he shrieks in ers orchard, for instance, and would warning and thus betrays the wherebe willing to make an affidavit that noabouts of the nest which might otherbody had seen me. .1 took all possible wise be difficult to locate. If several precautions against discovery. Yet in guinea hens are mated with one male the evening, when I got home, my they usually all lay in the same nest stern parent would meet, me at the but sometimes a hen after mating will door and say, So you have been rob- wander off by herself to make her own bing Farmer Dofiinnys orchard, hey? nest. At times a male bird, after helpYou are fully aware that robbing oring one hen to make her nest will chards does violence to the peace and then desert her and pair off with andignity of the state, and is contrary to other hen to make anotber nest. From 20 to 30, and often more, eggs the provisions of the revised statutes. are laid before the guinea hen becomesl Come, therefore, and receive the punishment prescribed by Solomon and broody, at which time she can be easily! other law givers. broken of her broodiness by removing He always explained that It caused the eggs from her nest, when she will him the most poignant sorrow to pour soon begin laying again. If not althe birch into me, but I couldnt be- lowed to sit, guinea hens will continue lieve in his Sincerity, for his eyes spar- to lay throughout the summer, laying kled with unseemly joy at such times, from 40 to 60 and in some cases 100 and if he had used the same enthusieggs during the season, say poultry asm when sawing wood, hed have specialists of United States Departwhacked up two or three cords in an ment of Agriculture. .. ' hour. Ordinary hens are used, commonly, I dont know to this day how he to incubate guinea , eggs, but guinea found out everything I did, unless he hens, turkey hens, and incubators also did some quiet sleuthing with false can be employed successfully. The! whiskers and a dark lantern, but he usual setting for a guinea hen is about; always did discover everything, and 14 eggs ; for a hen of the general pur- when I fully realized that fact I de- pose breeds, such as a Plymouth Rock,; cided to reform and became a model 18 eggs; and for a turkey hen, about! young man. I was so extremely good 24 eggs. The Incubation period for guinea eggs is 23 days, although fre-- . that my father couldnt dig up an for chastising me, and a settled quently they start hatching on the 26th melancholy fell upon him and he pined day and are all hatched by the end of. i away until he died. Ill never forget the 27th day. If the nest in which the guinea hem the reproachful glances he used to cast upon me, as though asking wheth- becomes broody is safe from any dis-- i er I considered, my course honorable turbance, she may be trusted with ai or generous. I got into the habit of setting of eggs, and more than likely! being good, and have never been able will hatch out every egg that Is fer-- l tile, provided all hatch at about e to break away from it. time. As soon as the guinea! chicks begin to leave the nest the hen, ... Jud Tunkins. will leave with them, and any eggs: Jud Tunkins says the man who Is that are. late in hatching are. ruined! too willing tp take advice is liable to unless they are placed In an incubator; a whole lot of time spend precious or ;under a broody hen before they be- -l ' . come listening to conversation, chilled. fifteen-year-ol- j . i . ' more, it must be remembered that If the data to be (secured from the banding of birds are to be of value, the carriers must be strong and healthy and not handicapped in any way. Under no conditions may their movements be considered as average. To,, remove a bird from the gathering cage for banding, reach into the cage (blocking the opening around the arm with the other hand) and work the bird Into a corner. It will almost surely be facing away from the operator. Grasp it in such manner as to pinion its neck between the thumb and index finger, and the wing tips, tall, and feet by the little Anger closed against the palm. In this position the bird may be held quietly, without using undue force. " Strangely enough, securing the birds head or neck will almost invariably gause it to oease struggling. If the bird is already banded and. only a simple examination is necessary, this position need not be changed,, as with the fingers of the free hand the band may be readily turned and the number read. Or, the bird may be allowed to perch on the little, Anger, the neck secured, between .two i fingers, as before. To place in position for banding, grasp the bird's head lightly but securely with the thumb and the index and second fingers of the other hand; release all other hold and by quickly reversing the position of the bird, draw it through the free hand with its back against the palm and close the little finger over the neck, and the other fingers around the body. This position is exactly the reverse of the original one,, in that the birds feet, wings, and tail are now secured by the second finger, where formerly this was accomplished by the little finger against the palm. The thumb and index fingers are now free to secure and hold the tarsus while .1 attaching the band. . For larger and more powerful birds this method will not answer, of course, but securing the birds head will in almost every case prove the key to the situation. With ducks and other birds of similar size, this Is best accomplished by resting the bird on the forearm and hand, held horizontally across the body of the operator, the head and neck passing to the rear under the upper arm, which secures them. This leaves both hands free to hold the feet and wing tips and attach the band. band that will Always select the smallest-size- d close around the tarsus (the bare portion of the foot or leg immediately above the toes) without I fitting so tightly as to bind or chafe. The band should move freely up and down and turn lightly and smoothly, but it should not fit loosely like a bracelet. A pair of small, pointed pliers, such as indispensable for this opticians use, are practically " work. States Department of Agriculture, Yt'ashington, AraXM?ZAZ?$jpJKD D. C. , ' chain With tl. establishment of a of trapping stations throughout the United States and Canada, regular returns are confidently exthanks to the Federal Migratory k pected through reports of retrapping birds that Bird act and a treaty with Canada were banded at the original and other station?. for its enforcement.. The importance Data thus afforded are already indicating the of this fact, aside from all sentiline of migration of individual birds, the speed ment in regard to the feathered of travel, and innumerable items of interest, many songsters, is that without' the birds we .should soon be eaten up by In-- , . of which have a direct bearing upon the study of life histories: A lively interest attaches to the sect pests.. Of course, the more we work In that each operator of a station is in a know about the migratory birds and continual state of anticipation through The knowltheir travels, the better we can treat them. There- edge that birds banded at' other stations may at g serves a useful purpose. Tore, any time be registered at his own traps. The United States Department of Agriculture The bands issued by the biological survey are of has just published department circular 170, In-- , two types, a split-rinband (sizes 1 to 6, inclusive) , C. structlons for by Frederick for all small birds, including those of the size of assistant biologist of the bureau of biologcrows, small owls, and herons ; and a ical survey. This circular says, by way of introband that is adjustable for all larger birds. For from dates in America duction, that land bird trapping, the government spargeneral row trap has been found the most satisfactory. jthe early years of the Nineteenth century, when Audubon placed silver threads around the legs Other traps (there are several that may be pur-- , of a brood of phosbes, and was rewarded the folchased in the open market) may also give satisreturn lowing season by having two of his birds but there is a distinct advantage in havfaction, to nest in the same vicinity. ing a standard type that birds may come to recwas attempted as early In Europe ognize ns a source of food, and for this reason It las 1710, but it was not until 1899 that it was is recommended that this trap be used. systematically.. Between that year and The circular' contains specifications sufficient to 1914 about 20 different organizations took up the enable anyone with moderate skill in the use of (work, and their activities have developed mucli (cols (tin snips, pliers, file, and hammer) to convaluable Information. struct the government' sparrow trap in a few In the United States active experimental work hours and at a nominal cost. was begun in 1901, and between that year and Problems that can be solved by bird banding in-- . 11909 several local attempts at were elude these: either planned or prosecuted. One of these, by How fast do the individuals of any species trav(the New Haven (Conn.) Bird club, was reported el on their periodic migrations ; that is, how many OrnitWo-gist- s to the annual meeting of miles per day will any one bird average during union in 1909, with the result thaf the Amethese journeys and what is the total time cong association was organized in rican , sumed in a trip? New York City on December 8, of that year.- This : one in flock Does continue van the or is the any association contihued to advance the work (duradvance made by successive Vicks passing one over ing the last few years under the auspices of the the other in alternate periods of rest- and flight? Linnaean Society of New York) until it outgrew Do individuals of any species always follow the available. the resources same route, and is it identical for both spring and Because of the valuable Information to be' se- -' ' fall flights? cured relative to the movements and life histories s Do birds make the same migrating of our migratory birds, especially the game and every year to feed? ,, Insectivorous species, the work of the association iwas taken over by the biological survey in 1920. j How long do birds remain in one locality during it is the phm of the survey to advance this method the migration, the breeding, or the winter seasons? What is the relation between the breeding and lof research along two principal lines : First, by jthe banding of fledglings as formerly practiced ; ' die wintering grounds of individuals ; that is, do land second, by the systematic trapping and handthose birds that breed farthest north winter farling of adults. thest south, thus jumping over those that occupy .... the intermediate zone, or do they merely replace operations, as carried on Through the latter individuals as winter residents? 4n Europe and America, large numbers of migraconsid-.erabl- e and Do birds adopt the same nesting area, nest site, been data.of have banded, birds tory and winter quarters during successive seasons? importance obtained during the last 20 For bow many broods will one pair' remain !years. 'In the United States these activities have mated, and which bird, if not both, is attracted received added impetus within the last year of next year to the old nesting site? Two, through the evolution of the method of sysTo what extent do males of a species assist In tematic trapping. Birds, have been marked in vaincubation and brooding? rious ways, but the most satisfactory is by means How far from their nests do birds forage for of a numbered aluminum band or ring, attached :to the tarsus, or bare portion of the leg. The apfood.: and after the young have left the nest, will the parent birds bring them to the feeding and plication of a stain or dye to the flight or tail V V feathers, the attaching of memoranda written on trapping, station? To what region do the birds go. ' particularly .parchment, and various other devices have been tried in the past, but are not satisfactory for any , the young, that do not return to. the vicinity of . , ' their original nests? .general investigation. How long do birds live? : Since it is the returns from birds banded that ; furnish the data desired in this branch of reFor the solution of these and related problems, search, it is of prime Importance, that the methods ., it is Important that the traps always be set on the employed be Improved and that the percentage original site, for birds already have returned to of birds under observation be Increased. Nothing the same traps through four or five consecutive seasons. Many returns will, .In the course of has been found more satisfactory, to the accomplishment of this than systemized trapping. As ..' time, afford anstyers to. 'the' ' important problem-her-' e .. " ,l the banding of fledglings lias the advantage of . . presented. on the ages of birds, ., small birds the Utmost care must In affording valuable information handling ' be exercised. It is of vital importance that they the biological survey Wishes to encourage these be so handled that they may be liberated in efactivities, but it desires to lay special emphasis on the added value of the systematic trapping of fect condition. Almost without exception they adults. Federal permit for this work Is required, ' highly nervous, and a quick pressure by the. under the provisions of the migratory-bir- d treaty "vr erator following some spasmodic struggle of he , bird may kill'll .instantly or so seriously .injure it act. Application for such permit should be to the bureau of biological survey, United as' to make Its destruction .necessary. Fun... r- IRDS now have a chance not only to. escape extinction but alsp to increase ' ' ex-a- . . . , . bird-bandin- g flat-stri- p ; g : g ' . g . Bird-Bandin- stop-over- g . . - ? . u- -e op-..- , ' Do not attempt to band birds recently hatched or but a few days' old; wait until they are fully fledged young birds and are about ready to leave the nest. The legs of most fully fledged young birds ate larger and more fleshy than those of the adults, so that no allowance for growth need be made. Water birds are an exception to this rule. p bands, having considerable Adjustable thickness and equipped with a special locking deThe vice,. require rather more skill to attach. pointed pliers, before mentioned, are absolutely necessary and in addition a pair of stout scissors or a pair of diagonal wire cutters will be needed tu trim off excess, length.. ., The band may first be roughly shaped around a finger and then opened sufficiently to admit the bird's- leg. It is now pressed together and its diameter reduced to the point where it fits smoothly. The second pair of nibs from the lock end are next l ent over and pinched tight with the pliers. The bend pinched together strip is now bent back,-the- . as close ns possible,, and locked, with the first pair of locking nibs. The excess length of tne band Is then trimmed off and the end pressed down smoothV' ' ly with the pliers. ., See that the number is on the outside. Attach ing these bands requires care and patience, for the stiffness of the metal Is sufficient to break' a birds ' leg If not properly handled put all pressure on the band and not on the leg and there wilt be ho ' ' ' trouble.' ; at Write down the band number , once; do not trust to memory. A hand wrongly read may totally disqualify what otherwise would be a most valuable set of data. Each collaborator should keep a permanent record of his operations.' ' Report results frequently. Franked envelopes will be supplied for returning the schedules, which during the husy season' should be at least once flat-stri- ' ' 5 ', , , each month. . . . ! , . ex--cu-se the-sam- , . . j The Only One on Him. It took Blobson five, hours to drive three pigs out of his front garden last night Davies Surely even BK&son coiild move quicker than the plgsf.-- 7,- Cooper Oh, he fpund he cobld move faster than three ijilgs, all right; but not in as many directions. , DUCK NOTES. Cooper : . V "Isnt it Some Lbft, : a pity loyely woman has no lasting charm ? , ; . I "She has if she learns how to b I good cook.. r An overcrowded duces feather-pullin- I pen of ducklings in. f At eleven weeks of age ducklings molt usually start ' their . . .j ! It Is just as necessary to avoid over- crowding among ducks as I is with1 heiis.: .' . I;"' - ; , ' ' i retains her productiveness' twice as long as a hen. At six years of age she is as vigorous, and prm ductive as a hen three years old. j A duck !