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A 1 complained of, and that the trouble was mainly due to the extreme difficulty, and often impossibility, of providing in every place' Mr flie' constant Increase In the numbers of employes, Generally the provision is made in advance, b'uf it is not possible that this, should always be thea case, when 'ft is not there ensues period of time .during which the conditions are unsatisfactory, until a remedy can be provided: but i never .found a ease where (Tie remedy was not being prq ided as speedily a,s pqssiple. Improvements in Cities. The sanitation work in the cities of Panama and .Colon lias. been, just as important as in the zone its. If and be-in many respects much more difficult, cause it was necessary to deal with tlie already existing population, which naturally had scant sympathy with of revolutionary change,a tlie value which they were for long time not to In Colon the able populaperceive. tion consists largely. of colored laborers who. having come over from the West Indies to work on the ennal. abandon tlie work and either take to the brush or lie idle in Colon itself; thus peopling Colon with the least desirable among- the imported laborers for the good and steady men of course continue at the work. Yet astonishing progress has been made in both cities. In Panama HO per cent of the Streets that are to be paved at all are already paved with an excellent brick rpavomt nt laid in heavy concrete, a few of the streets being still in process of paving. The sewer and water services in the city are of the most modern hygienic type, some of the service having just been completed. are In Colon the conditions peculiar and It is as regards Colon that most of the very bitter complaint has been made. Colon is built on a low coral island, covered at more or less shallow PRESIDENT'S SPECIAL WIESSAG ON PANAMA GAIL Gives Results of His Obser- vations While on Tour of Inspection to Congress, THE WORK IS BEING PUSHED Perfection of Sanitary Conditions in Canal Zone Has Taken Much Time. accumulations deptha with vegetable sustenance and or mold, which affords of strength to many varieties One-hathe of tropical plants. surface of the island Is covered with water at litsfh tide, the average height of the land' being 1M feet above low tide. Tlie slight undulations furnish shallow, natural reservoirs or freshwater breeding places for every variety of mosquito, and the ground tends When the to be lowest in the middle. town was originally built no attempt was made to fill the low ground, either in the streets or on the building sites, so that tlie entire surface was practically a ooHirmii'e: when the quagmire became impassable certain of the streets wee crudely Improved bv tilling especially bad mud holes with soft rock or other .material.- In September. IflOIi, a systematic effort was begun to formulate a general plan for the proper sanitation of the city; in February last temporary relief measures were taken, while in July the prosecution of the work was begun In good earnest. The results are already visible in tlie sewering, draining, guttering and paving of the streets. Some four months will be required before the work of sewerage and street improvement will be completed, but the progress already made is very marked. Ditches have been dug through the town, connecting the salt water on both sides, and into these the ponds. wliicUUave served as breeding places for the mosquitoes, are drained. These ditches have answered, their purpose, for they are probably the chief cause of the astonishing diminution of mosquitoes. More ditches of the kind are being constructed. Unjust Criticism. But Little Ground .for Com plaints and Refutes Statements of Critics Calls Some Writers "Slanderers and Liars" Approves of Type and Route of Canal. unci low-lyin- g lf The following Is the text of an) Itootevclt's special message to congress r Hi' Panama canal: Pri-Mii on (he subject Tp the Semite and House oC Representatives: In the month of Nnveinlier 1 visited tile Isthmus of Panama, going over the .'anal Zone with considerable care; anil Jso visited the rities of Panama ami Colon, which are not in the zone or under the United States flag, but as to which the i'nited states government, through Its agents, exercises control for certain sanitary purposes. I chose the month of November tor my visit partly be. uuse it is the rain eat month of the year, the month in which the work goes forward at the greatest disadvantage, ami one of the two months which the medical department of the French Canal company tumid most unhealthy. Following the Introduction to the message the president gives a resume of his programme during the days he was on the isthmus, and then s.iys: At the outset 1 wish to pay tribute to the amount of work done by the Ftene.h ("anal company under very difficult circumstances. Many of the buildings they put up were excellent and are stilt in use, though, naturally, the houses are now getting out of repair and ate being used as dwellings only until ofher houses can be built, and much or the work they did In the Culebra cdt, arid some of the work they did in digging has been of direct and' real benefit Tltis country has never made a better Investment than the JIO.OOO.OiX) which it paid to the French company for work and betterments, including especially the Panama railroad. An Inspection on the ground at the height of the rainy season served to convince me of the wisdom of congress li to adopt either a or arefusing canal. There seems to be a universal agreement among all people competent to judge that the Cm una route, the one actually chosen, is much to both the Nicaragua and superior Dart en routes. Preliminary Work Being Done. The Wisdom of the canal management has been shown in nothing more clearly than in the way in which the founda-tlon- s of the work have been laid! To have yielded to the natural impatience of outsiders and begun all kinds of experiments In work prior to a thorough sanitation of the isthmus, and to a fairly satisfactory working out of the problem of getting and keeping a sufficient labor supply, would have been disastrous. The various preliminary measures had to be taken first and these could not he taken so as to allow us to begin the real work of construction prior to January 1 of the present year. It then became necessary to have 'he type of the canal decided, and the only delay has been the necessary delav pntll the 29th day of June,, the ttate when the congress definitely and wlselv settled that we should have an level canal. Immediately after that the work began In hard earnest and has beencontinued with Increasing vigor STer since; and It will continue so to progress in the future. "WU.., the are let the conditions, will be such ss to insure a constantly Increasing amount of performance. high-lev- sea-lev- , - con-trac- tf Successful Sanitation. The first great problem to be solved. upon the solution of which the suorcss of the rest of the work depended, was the This was from problem of sanitation. the outset under tile direction of Dr. W ('. (iorgns, who is to be made u full member, of the commission. It must be remembered that his work was not mere sanitation as the term Is understood In out ordinary municipal work. Throughout the zone and in the two cities of Panama and Colon, in addition to the Ban i t a o n work proper, lie lias had to do all the work that the Marine hospital aervice does as regards the nation, that the health department officers do in tae various states and cities, and that Col. Waring did In New York when he cleaned Its streets. The results have t,,en astounding. The isthmus had b i a byword for deadly unhealt limitless Now, after two years of our 01 c.ipotion the Conditions as regards sickness and the death rate compare favorablv with Unin reasonably healthy localities united States. ('.special care lias been devoted to minimising the risk due to the presence j( those species of mosquitoes which have been found to propagate malarial and yellow fevers. In all the settlements, the tittle temporary towns or cities composed of the white and black employes, which glow up here, and there in the tropic Jungle as the' he, .Is of the work dictate, the utmost care la exercised to keep the conditions healthy. Kverywhere are to be seen the drainage dltrhes whicti In removing the water have remove tae breeding places of the in, moui toes, while the whole Jungle is rut aw ay for a coiislilc ruble space around the habitations, thus f destroying, the places in which the mosquitoes take shelter. These drainage ditches and clearings are in evidence In every settlement, a the invariable presence of together witi: mos.uito s, reena around the piazzas, and of mosquito doors to the houses, not to speak of lite careful fumigation Hthai h i gone on In ill infected houses; oi explain the extraordinary absenc, As a matter of fact, bit mosquitoes a single mo.s.oiito, mid this not of the dangerous species, wus iweli by any member ol oji.jirly during my Hire" Is days on the Isthmus, lafual care taken by the inspectors of the health department to secure cleanliness In the houses ami propel hygienic conditions ot I every kind inspected' between It) ami H wster closets, hoth those Used by the white employe! and those used by the colored latNu'er. In Hlmosi ever) case In hut one found the Aralltiona perfect ease did I find them re, illy bad. In th n unmar of case, affecting settle, netit found them ver rled White employes, bud indeed, but the buildings were ttb inherited from the French company and were beina uxed temporarily while other buildings were in the coarse of construction ; and riht near tlie defective water closet a new and exi ellenl closet w ith a of eon good sewer pipe w;.-- in pro, essNeverihe-e-.St ruction ,in,l nearly finish,,!. excuse not did fact the the that this m allo'wed lo prebad eontlfl ha, I even vail. Teeaconiry accommodations, w i'ii liiiiii"' if only1. Ii- - ii in the fttajg should have be n provided fle a a I'jMJus mi a'ere. issued. toe Mftfe oi i r Uorgai on the, Vfis iK ick. however, by 'the - in aim oi fact that ipiatlnl was made every other, where' 4,' which proved to tune uny Justlflcatlo i .Whatever it appeared (h it stes had ., 4aaa turned)' the m,i ready. I . 1 . . ! I s -- .: ., I 1 Ifl'i a- Care ;yid forethought have been exercised by the commission, and nothing has reflected more credit upon them than their refusal either to go ahead too fast or to be deterred by the fear of criticism from not going ahead fast enough. It Is curious to note the fact that many of tiie most Hevere critics of the commission criticise them tor precisely opposite reasons, some complaining bitterly that the work Is not in a more advanced condition, while the others complain that it has been rushed with such haste that there has been Itiaufflclent preparation for the hygiene and comfort of the employs. As a matter of fart, neither criticism is Just, It would have been impossible to has go quicker than the commission would have gone, for such quickness On the me nit Insufficient preparation. other hand. to. refuse to do anything until every possible future contingency had been met would have caused wholly unwarranted delay. The right course to follow was exactly the course which has been followed Kvery reasonable preparation was made in advance, the hygienic conditions In especial being made as nearly perfect as possible; while on the other hand there has been no' timid refusal lo push forward the work because of Inability to anticipate every possible emergency, for. of course, many defects can only be sttown by. the working of the system in actual practice. Inasmuch as so many both of the white and colored employes have brought their families with them, schools have been established, the school service being under Mr. O'Connor. For the white pupils while' American teachers are employed; for the colored pupils there are also some white American teachers, one Spanish teacher, and one colored American teacher, most of them being colored teachers from Jamaica. Barbados and St. Lucia. The schoolrooms were good, and it was a pleasant thing to see UN pride that the teachers were taking in their work and their pupils. Care of Employes. Next In Importance to the problem of sanitation, and Indeed now of equal importance, is the problem of securing and caring for the mechanics, laborers and other employes who actually do the work This great on tlie canal and the railroad. task has been under the control of Mr. Jackson Smith, and on tlie whole has been well done. At present there are soaie t'.,MH white employes and some colored employes on the Isthmus t, 000 went over the different places where the different kinds of employes were think I saw representatives working' of every type both at their work and in their homes; and conversed with probably a couple of hundred of them all from told, choosing them at random every class and including those who came to certain grievances present especially obnost Invariably expressed far greater content and satisfaction with the conditions than did those who called to make complaint. Nearly MM of the white employes bad come from the I'nited Slates. No man men can see these young. vigorous energetically doing their duty without a thrill of pride in them as Americans. They represent on the average h high class. Doubtless to congress the wages paid them will seem high, but as a matter of fart the only general complaint which I found had any real basis among tlie complaints made to me upon the laUimua was that, owing lo the peeull ir surroundings the cost of living, and the distance from home, the wages were really not as high as they I should lie. In tact, almost every man spoke to fidt that he o'igat to be receiving more a the which however, view, money who stays at home In the likewise holds 1'nlted States probably as regards himself. append tig ires of ti c wages paid, so that the congress can shall judge the matter for Itself, loiter conier on the subject with certain repre-StattVC labor men here ill the United Stale, as well as going over with Mr paid on Stevens, the comparative .&vuges the i, me md at home, and I may then communicate my findings to the canal ommlttees of the two houses. Chinese and Other Labor. (if the lft.000 or '.'0.000 day laborers employed on the canal a few hundred ar Spaniards. These do excellent Work. Their foreman told me that ,1(1 twice as well as the West th. They keep hcitlthy ledciti lileiTers. and no difficulty Is expcrlen i with Some Italian labotn in u'tv way tli. In connection rer' arc also employed. As might be with the drilling '.l. wltl lab,)r as high priced ns it present In 'the i'nited States, it h is not so far proved practicable to get ,nv ordinary laborers from the I'nited Slates The American on the isthmus are the highly paid d I. lied mechanics of the types previously. A steady effort Is I,, ing made to s, cure Italians, and illy Mo procure more Spaniards, re'i, cause of the very satisfactory Invr cuius from their mits thst an it their numbers will be It has far as possible increased not prov ed possible however, lo g, t l hem In anything like the numbers needed lot the work, and from present ipp, ariinces w e shall In the main have to rely, for (he ordinary unskilled work, pirtlv upon colored laborer from the West indies Partly upon I otmht to Chinese labor. II be BMleevesari to po.ut out that the I 1 n I ex-p.- rt wage-worke- nun-Hone- -- I be American workingman In the I'nited Plan bv which they -.anwW-invariably has been States has no concern whatever in the prote. ted it. a pi. for ulness. uuhealthf as to whether the rough work for ages a bvword question of on the isthmus which Is per' ormed by and with so large a congregation down and set to aliens in any event, la done by aliens Strang-- ! - suddenly put now be will and then from one country with a blac&.ekln hard w .rk there will now or by aliens from another country outbreaks of disease There in administrawith a yellow skin. Our business Is and then be shortcomlnga unlooked-fo- r accibe will as tion there to dig the canal as efficiently and dent's t,, delay the excavation of the cut provided always quickly as possible; locks and dams the that nothing is done that Is Inhu nane or the buildingident will be entirely natEach auch in, to any laborers, and nothing lout inthough serious, no one terferes with the wages of or lowem ural and. evenmean more than a little of own of of our them will the standard living extra delay or trouble. Vet each,andwhen workmen Having In view this prinresensation mongers bv I have arranged to try several discovered ciple, faith, will tailed to timid folk of little belief thousand chines,- - laborers. This is dethat the for excuse sirable both because we must try to aerve as anwork is being badly managed the whole find out what laborers are most effontii.ually lie ti led in because we Experiments w icient, and. furthermore, in street repairing, should not leave ourselves at the inhousing, in hygiene, earth and m. r. y of dredging and in digging any one type of f oreign an experiment will then labor. 'At present the gnat bilk of rock Now and who hear those and among, be a failure; on the isthmus is the unskilled labor of It a certain proportion of doubting done by West India negroes, chiefly once that the believe at will Thomases from Jamaica. Barbados, and the other whole work is a failure. Doubtlesswill here One of the govEnglish ofpossessions. be minor some rascality the lands In question has and there ernors but as to this. I have to say shown an unfHedly dlspositi"! to our uncovered; the most painstaking inquiry after work and has thrown obstacles In the that to find a single reputway of our getting tlie labor needed; I have been unablehad so much as heard anrt it is I. lgl.lv lindesi ra hie to five able person whoaccusations affecting the serious of any outsiders the however impression, my the commission or of any honesty of officer III founded, that they are indispensaunder it. 1 append a responsible ble and can dictate terms to us. letter dealing with the mostof serious The West India laborers are fairly, lots in ownership that of the was Some of charge, the but only fairly, satisfactory. not advanced by charge Colon; the men do very well indeed; the beta reputable man, and la utterly baseter class, who are to be found as foreless It is not too milch to say that the men, as skilled mechanics, as policeatmosphere of the commission men, are good men; and many of the whole efficiency breathes honesty as It breathes wairk OIJ0jnarv ,l:iv laborer Br s!o gnrwl. and has Above all, tiie those who are been energy.absolutely But thousands of of politics, clear kept brought overoffunder contract (at our have never heard even a suggestion of into the jungle to live, expense) go politics in connection with it. or loaf around Colon, or work so bad- - spoils I have investigated every complaint IV after tl.e rirt .three four dilVS to me for which there seemed is to cause a serious diminution of brought to be any shadow of foundation. In the amount of labor performed on Fritwo or three cases, all of which I day and Saturday ofof each week. I have indicated In the course of this these Jamaica many questionedas to I came to the conclusion that the conditions of their message. laborers there Was foundation for the of comwok and I what, if any changes, they plaint, the and that the methods wished. received many complaints In the respect complained Cram them, but as regards most of commission be bettered. In the other incould of these complaints they themselves conthe complaints proved absoIn all cases stances baseless, tradicted one another. save in two or three lutely where the complaint was as to their Instances where they referred to mistreatment by any individual It proved takes which the commission had alon examination, that this individual ready found out and corrected. was himself a West India man of color, either a policeman, a storekeeper, or Slanders and Libelers. an assistant Doubtless storekeeper. So much for honest criticism. There there must be many complaints against remains of as an immense amount Americans; but those to whom I spoke reckless slander as lias ever been pubdid not happen to make any such comWhere the slanderers are of lished. no concern with plaint to me. foreign origin I have are Americans. I Where them. they Work of Construction. feel for them the heartiest contempt The work is now going on with a and indignation; because, in a spirit and malice, vigor and efficiency pleasant to witwanton dishonesty ness The three big problems of the of are trying to interfere with and canal are the .La Boca dams, the Gatun they of. the greatest execution the dam, and tlie Culebra cut. The Cule-br- a hamper work of the kind ever attempted, and cut must be made, anyhow; but are to bring to naught the efof course changes as to the dams, or fortsseeking of their countrymen to put to at least as to the locks adjacent .to the credit of America one of the giant the dams, may still occur. The La feats of the ages. The outrageous Boca dams offer no particular probof these slanderers conaccusations lem, the bottom m Serial being so stitute a gross libel upon a body of good that there is a practical certainservants who. for trained intel- r can be public ty, not merely as to what ligence, expert ability, high charac-tetachieved, but as to the time of achieveand devotion to duty, have Isnever ment. The Oatun dam offers the most been excelled anywhere. not There serious problem which we have to a man among those directing the work solve; and yet the ablest men on the on the isthmus who lias obtained his Isthmus believe that this problem js on any other basis than merit certain of solution along the lines position alone, and not one who has used his in any way for his own perproposed; although, of course, it neposition cessitates great toll, energy, and Insonal or pecuniary advantage. of equally, telligence, an.l although Plan to Build by Contract. course, there will be some little risk in connection with the work. The risk After most careful consideration we arises from the fact that some of the have decided to let out most of the material near- the. bottom is not so work by contract, If we can come to good as could be desired. If the huge satisfactory terms with the contractearth dam now contemplated Is thrown ors. The whole work is of a kind across from one foothill to the other suited to the peculiar genius of our we will have what is practically a people: and our people have develbehind low, broad, mountain ridge the type of contractor best fitted which will rise the inland lake. This oped to with it. It is of course artificial mountain will probably show muchgrapple better to do the work In large less seepage, that is, will nave greater .part by contract than to do it all by restraining capacity than the average the government, provided it is pos-- I natural mountain range. The exact losihle on the one hand to secure to the as at of at locks the this dam a sufficient remnueration contractor cality the other dams is now being to make it worth while for responIn April next Secretary sible contractors of the best kind to Taft. with three of the ablest enginthe work: and provided on eers of tlie country Messrs. Nohle. undertake the other hand It can be done o terms Stearns and Ripley will visit the which will not give an excessive profit isthmus, and the three engineers will to the contractor at the expense of make the final and conclusive examiAfter much congovernment. nations as to the exact site for earn the the plan already promulsideration lock. Meanwhile tlie work is yoing gated by the secretary of war was ahead without a break. This plan in Its essential adopted. The Culebra cut does not offer such features after careful was drafted to is. that liable the damage great risks; and thorough study and consideration, occur from occasional land s.ips will not bv the chief engineer. Mr. Stevens, represent what may lie called major diswho. while In the employment of Mr. asters. The work will merely call for inHill, the president of the Oreat Northand executive telligence, pet severance, ern railroad, had personal experience work It Is, the Mr. however, upon of this very type of contract. capacity. which most labor will have to be spent. to Stevens then submitted the plan Mr. The dams will be composed of the earth the chairman of the commission. taken out of the cut and very possibly Sbonts. who went carefully over it tl.e building of the locks and dams will of with Mr. Rogers, the legal adviser take even longer than the cutting in the commission, to see that till legal Culebra itself. submitHe met. were then difficulties ted copies of the plan to both SecreIn Culebra Cut. myself. Secretary Taft tary Taft and In The main work is now being done if to some of the best counthe Culebra cut. It was striking and submitted New York bar. and aftersel the at impressive to see the huge steam shovels wards I went over it very carefully in full play, the dumping trains carrying Mr. Shouts, and we Mr. and Taft with away the rock and earth they dislodged. laid the plan in its general features Thui implements of French excavating Mr. Root. My conclusion ad-Is machinery, which often stand a little before of that ft combines the maximum winx. from the line of work, though of exof disadvantage with theit minimum cellent construction, look like the veriest be a will Under premium vantage. toys when compared with these new economical put nnnn theof speedy and and steam shovels, just as the French dumpa penthe canal, construction ing cars seem like toy cars when comon delay and waste The pared with the long trains of huge cars, alty imposed Is tentative; as promulgated plan now steam are which plows, dumped by changed doubtless It will have to be can In hse. This represents the enormous come we before some In respects In machinadvance that has been made rewith a to agreement satisfactory cena of tlie ery during past quarter even contractors-perhap- s sponsible bids have been received; tury.- No doubt a quarter of a century hence tills new machinery, of which we after ofthe course it is possible that we are now so proud, will similarly seem out and not come to a agreement. In which can of aVtte, but it is certainly serving its The old French cars case tlie government will do theon work pitrO'ose well now. the Meanwhile the work Itself We still had to be entirely discarded. of few use the more modern, Isthmus Is progressing steadily and a lutve dn but not most modern, cars, which hold without any let up. but 12 yards of earth. They can be emSingle Commissioner Desired. of ployed on certain lines with sharp commission is A curves. But the recent cars hold from instrument. 2", to 30 yards apiece, and instead of the course a clumsy executive We should have but one commissionold clumsy methods of unloading therii. of beads such departments er end with a steam plow is drawn from end tu him as we and other officers under of Ifie whole vestibule. train, thus imWe should be mensely economizing labor. In the rainy may find necessary. to employ the reason the steam shovels can do but expressly permitted little In dirt, but they work steadily in best engineers In tlie country as conThere sulting engineers'. rock and In the harder ground I accompany this paper with a map were some 2.', at work during tlie tlflte what the cnal was pn the isthmus, and their tremendous showing substantially When will be like when it Is finished. poWer and efficiency were most Imprescut has been made and sive. the Culebra at built are if built they will thenas be the dams New Records for Excavation. proposed there Atlantic present ends deof was canal as the soon As type it both the Pacific and r cided this work began In good earnest of the canal two great channel The rainy season will shortly be over and connected by a broad lakes of a ravine, theh there will lie an immense Increase In running at the bottom the amount taken out; but even during across the backbone of the Western i e.. Those best informed be the last three months, in the rainy season, stead) progress Is shown by the lieve that the work wilt he completed 242.000 ruble yards; In about eight years: but It is never In August, figures: such a work in September, 2!d.0m cubic yards, and In safe to prophesy about in tlie tropics. October. 32.".000 cubic yards. In October for the as this, especially new' records were established as well as Confident of Ultimate Success. output of individual shovels for tlie tonnage haul of individual locoOf the success of the enterprise motives. I hope to see the growth of a am well convinced as one can be It healthy spirit of emulation between the of any enterprise that is human. our different shovel and locomotive crews, Is a stupendous work upon which lust such a spirit as has grown on our fellow countrymen are engaged down iuittle ships between the different gun there on the Isthmus, ami while we strict accountalews m matters of marksmanship, should hold them toIn A Which they perPassing through the cut the amount of for the way new work can be seen at a glance. In bility It. we should recognize with of one place the entire side of a hill had form nature the epic frank generosity, been taken out recently bv 27 torn of the upon which they are engaged at one and task world-widdvnamlte, whh'h were exploded importance will They biaat. At another place I was given a are Its doing something to which the credit of presidential salute of 21 charges of dynaImmeasurable in tluv top notch of the Culebra mite America, which will benefit an" the Is now as as wide it will cut the prism last for ages world and which MrwillShouts be: all told, the canal bed at this point and Mr rmler to come .as now been sunk about 200 feet below work has this Dr. and what It originally was. It will have to Stevens omen of good forstarted withandevery lie sunk about 130 feet farther. Through-ou- t their 'worthy associates, tune Thev the cut the drilling, blasting, shovelto the lowest, are from the highestsame, credit that wq ing and hauling are going on with conto the the huge entitled energy, men of stantly Increasing the to p'"ked alve would shovels being pressed up. as If they were eletoelcns etn v fo' t'.is -- onnuest of mountain howitzers, into the most t nnd gr-In Its peace will. stood 1. nmoeir look g places, where they eat very inB.'.free their way Into the hillsides. whether of pearo grentest conquests Won ver hi ben which war. Critics and Doubting Thomases. or of A peoples toof manKInd it Is not only natural, but Inevitable, i,v nnv oftothe Amerievery be given a that a work as gigantic aa this which badge Is ii",l time on the Isthmus can citizen who foi has be.n this work: for parshould arouse every species of hostility has taken InpartIt In hr held Will her. ift.r and rltlclsin The conditions are so ticipation upon 'be man and so trying, and the work so vast, that to reflect honor n honor It reflects upon Just out of the qties it would be absolutely a soldier to have belonged to a mightys lion that mistakes should not be made righteon-neschecks w ill oi ui I'nforeseen difficulties g'eat war 'or ,,.niy In a fellow pountrymen on the Our From lime t, time seemingly will arise our Interest will well set tied plans have to be Isthmus are working for fTi nn In the and for the national hang, d At present 25,000 men are ensame the with and on tlie After task. awhile ame spirit the gaged thai the men of the army and number will be doubled In such a a, aelenev work It beof war In lime liunde it is Inevitable thai there should navy to do all we be here Htid there a ,oundrel. Very hoove us In our turn hands ind lo ild can to hold Up their to to iimy of tlie poorer i lass of laborers lack ing their the mental development to protect them- - them in every n wav r mi ol ee against umpt nl either the rascality of rrent work to THBOIMHIK ROOSKVKIr others or ihelr own follv. and it la not U 17. 190 House ember White to wisdom am fur devise bin, The s possible . , seven-heade- COMPOSES MUSIC AT FIVE. REMARKABLE GIFTS OF NESSEE BOY. himself. , His stories are produced in, a similar Manner. He gets an idea fdr a' tile. thinks it over, and then dicMtPs tftt his mother. Afterward she reads i Nashville, Tenn. A new child woo- hi in. and he expresses every sptlsfac-is tlfe it identical 'Vitlt "provided tiou. this in city. fer has been discovered called it off; but: be al- Melvyn' KUouaid Hesselberg, who is way he first five old, already years just turning composes music and. writes stories. Hesselberg is a name well known in Nashville, for the child's father is Kdouard Hesselberg. a musician 0t in tentatlonal fame. a Mr. Hesselberg is a Russian, the of Davidoff, great mandnephew cellist. He, too, was precocious, for as a student in Moscow, he was permitted to appear at the famous Philharmonic concerts, being the only student thus honored. When lie graduated he received a gold medal, the only one tendered to any member of his class, and performed Lizst'i famous "Danse .Macabre'' before a audience. Hesselberg then studied the piano with Rubinstein. Mrs. Hesselberg also is an artist and a writer, who makes a specialty of children's stories in the kinderFrom this artistic garten form. parentage il is easy to see where the youngster gets his talent. Little Hesselberg was born with melody in his soul. At the age of f three and years he began which melodies. little humming seemed to the musical ear of the faHe questher to have originality. tioned the boy and asked where he had heard them. "I just made it up." was the boyish answer. Thinking the melody had merely been an accidental hitting of notes that went well together, Mr. Hessel.-berpaid no further attention until'he began observing that the boy rememMELVYN HESSELBERG. bered every note of each melody as Child Wrw Composes (Tennessee he sang it the first time, and that he Music and Stories.) kept them all separate and distinct in mind and never confused them or ways complains if any change has ran them together. been made. Thfiti little Hesselberg started givAll the faults of his English and the ing names to his melodies. immaturity of his ideas must be re From this time on, Melvyn has been tained, for his wonderful memory is a (imposing. He is still too young to veritable Sherlock Holmes ready read or write, but he dictates the detect the least errof or deception. nines to his father. Melvyn does not look like a genius Like all children, he is very critical, or a child phenomenon. There is nothand will not allow a note of what he ing of the priggish, precocious child invents to be changed. His father has wonder about him.' He is fat anil frequently experimented, and purpose- healthy, in fact a lamous boy. beauty. His beautiful features and perfect ly rna.de alterations to see if detect them. In every case the complexion have made him the winner has been the same. The boy at numerous' beauty shows held over and com- the state. At every exhibit of, pretty has protested instantly pelled the air to be played as he had children he is invariably the winner, first written it. Lately at the Georgia state fair he Most of the melodies are good arid j took first prize ..in a competition This could hardly ) against hundreds of children. show originality. Hesselberg Writes Music and Stories Is Extremely Critical afid Will Allow No Changes In His Works. It-t- one-hal- g Melv-yri-wou- i WEBB A LOW CHURCHMAN. New Bishop of Milwaukee Diocese Dispense with Showy Service. to dained fo the deaconate by the bishop of New Hampshire, and later elevated to the priesthood by the bishop of Connecticut. He had hoped to work; in tlie Maine woods, but his old friends in Philadel phia called him back and he became assistant at the Church of the Evangelists, Philadelphia, and later became rector of St. Elizabeth's, in 1902 he came west as a teacher at Nashotah seminary. A year ago he was made bishop coadjutor against the vote of the clergy with the support of the low churchmen in the laity. Now he is advanced to charge of the diocese. RETREAT OF CROWN Marie of PRINCESS. Roumania Has In a Tree. Nest-Hous- e d London. Princess Marie of Roumania. wfe of the crown prince of Roumania. has probably the most delightful retreat of any member of any European royal family. It is a built high up among the branches of tall fir trees and in it the princess spent the greater part of the past summer. BISHOP W. W. WEBB, The nest is a miniature cottage, to New Wisconsin Prelate Opposed built for her by the king of Rouma-.ifHigh Church Rites.) nest-hous- fresh-wate- T e i Cot-ga- s far-resc- ' ' i be otherwise, for Melvyn is too young to have observed and studied the ideas of others, and that which fie produces nasi DecesfMffJ come entirely from EN Melvin I , A e a Milwaukee The elevation of Bishop Coadjutor Walter W. Webb to the nead Of tlie Milwaukee diocese means certain, though unostentatious stop backward from the course toward the nloption in the west of the high church rites so long advocated by the late Itishop Nicholson. With tlie crowning of Hlshop Webb will come the first of the lower church eremonies Bishop Nicholson had long been, with Bishop Grafton, of Fond du Lac. a devotee of the high hurch crusade Bishop Grafton even worked for an alliance with the Greek Catholic church Nicholson Bishop was not quite so radical, bit! he was nifflclently advanced to have ceremonies in his cathedral so formal thai but for the language in which the service was intoned, there would lie iittle difference from the Roman Catholic cathedral Bishop Webb did not sympathize wilh this movement. His idea is more missionary spirit in the church a getting down to Hie common people tather than an appeal to the wealthiei folk by an extravagance in ritual and ceremony Bishop Webb was Philadelphia born, anil gt initiated from the I'niversity of rcuusylvnnls. Then he. went to New England, first as a student at Trinity college, Hartford, Conn.; then to the Betkclev Ihvinin .chnol He was or i HOME OF PRINCESS IN A TREE. at Sinaia. A small staircase lends access Two rooms and a kitchen comprise the nCst and they are furnished in a delightfully simple and elegant way. Less Rain in Ecuador. Since 1K7S to the present time near-I- f every year has seen a continued and steady decline In the amount of rainfall In Ecuador. No exact statistics are ohialnablev but there is said to hn little reason to doubt that the decline within tlie period cited Is upward of .to rier rem ." " .