|Paper||Bear River Valley Leader|
|Rights||No Copyright - United States (NoC-US)|
|Publisher||Digitized by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah|
|Paper||Bear River Valley Leader|
. : 7 TGeneVat: GvoifeJ or the if -AMD HAY STACKERS ARE INEXPENSIVE WILL SAVE MUCH FARM HAHDPOWER M4 Xeaque oIiions -- it - Z - V "r ' Unloading by Machines Releases Hand Power, by the United States Department of Agriculture.) Thousands of farmers who faced the harvesting of a large hay crop last year with fewer hands than usual to help do the work owe their success in handling and saving their crop to hay stackers. The hay stacker Is to stacking what the horse fork is to putting bay in the barn, a saver of man and labor. It lifts the hay on the stack by horse power instead of man power. When hay Is loaded on the wagon by hand and unloaded of the hand labor by a stacker one-haIs eliminated. If push rakes or hay loaders are psed in connection with the stacker the laborious task of pitching by hand Is entirely avoided. Useful in East and South. In the East and South, where much of the hay grown is stored under cover, a stacker could be used to advantage when it becomes necessary to stack, especially where labor Is scarce. A boy who can drive a team can take the place of a man in the haying operation. Two men and a boy using a loader and stacker will handle about 75 per cent more hay for each man during a crew loading and day than a three-ma: unloading by hand. two in genare classed stackers Hay eral types, one having teeth on which the hay is gathered and brought to the stack on push racks ; the other consisting of stackers that do not receive hay directly from push racks, but handle it by means of horse forks or slings. Both types are comparatively inexpensive and caa usually be made at home with material that is available or which can be readily assembled on the farm without using special tools-- A stacker will last from 10 to 12 years under ordinary conditions, and the cost of repair is small. On 27 farms in central Kansas, which stack an average of 144 tons of hay a year,, all charges against the stackers amounted to less than 7 cents a ton when the yield was one ton an acre. Small Stacks Not Economical. In building a haystack with a stacker it is scarcely economical to muke one containing less than 10 tons, according to experience. In locating stacks long or difficult hauls should be avoided whenever possible. It is very common on many farms to see stack? of hay at the end or corner of the field next to the farm buildings, the site being chosen In order to have the hay handy for feeding. The total distance traveled in bringing hay to One side of a square field is approximately 50 per cent greater than in hauling to the center. If the stack is located at one corner of the field the distance traveled is. 100 per cent greater. To minimize damage by moisture from the ground, care should be taken to keep the hay in the bottom of the stack from comipg into contact with the soil. The aim of all good stack builders is to make a stack that will not "take water." This can be accomplished by tramping the middle well and always keeping it higher than the edges during the process of building. To give the, stack, further protection, many farmers provide a canvas cover or sheets of corrugated galvanized iron roofing which, when properly put on, practically eliminates loss from rain. DIFFERENT STORAGE CHICKENS (Prepared , lf n KiNHiVA, switzenana, is iihi 1 ta. nf"' rfTr) itself a sort kctical view- hot too large, members of considering of struggles freedom, it ity has been ke intangible defend, not b the rights ilated fifteen e lake, em- kydroplanes, y land and territorial domed with eral . estates f the differ--r 1 miles out hdily fulfills b oldest vil li eva's prop- - of the e Bernese ? re-th- puaily beau-- b from time ace for the replaced the by beautiful inted. Two ct, rendered f time, with chosen, Erst de The Is oecu- he Chateau- - erty of El-ra- presl- he estate of es Bonnet, ho of the iet property wd scrupu-on- g hillock aed toward id) Alls the a for n dls- l'ore. and a ownship of he Vcrsolx crossed by route to the most It was FT and col-- I (he great u 1723 he limp became ienedlrt de iter of Ami thnt of his ;td V- - uncle, Charles Bonnet. De Saussure, filled with a passionate love for the high Alps, the outline "of which he gazed at every day, went exploring, climbing Mont Blanc, writing his "Voyages dans les Alpes" His daughter, who became Madame Necker de Saussure, grew up In this (1779-1786- ' (1776-1817- the latter In the early day of the sixteenth century. Geneva is the capital' of the canton cf Geneva. It Contains possibly '60,000 people4-- a little over 100,000 with its suburbs and the canton has a popula- There tion of about 135,000. are 22 cantons, with a total population of about 3,350,000. The Romans made themselves masters of the country in the first century, B. C. Their dominion lasted about four cen turies. A succession of masters followed. When it became a part of the German (Holy Roman) empire in the eleventh century it of petty states lled by dukes, was a hodge-podg- e counts, bishops and abbots, together with little The beginning of the confederation of cantons was in the thirteenth century. In 1276 Rudolph of Hapsburg, Holy Roman emperor, secured control of the duchy of Austria and threatened the liberties of the Swiss. To resist Its aggressions the three forest cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden In 1291 entered into a league. In the fourteenth century five other cantons joined. The house of Hapsburg found the mountaineers Invincible. At the close of the middle ages the connection of Switzerland with the German empire came virtually to an end. The confederation was enlarged by fresh accessions. In the sixteenth century, as stated, Geneva shook off the authority of the dukes of Savoy and of the bishops. After the reformation in the pence of Westphalia (1648) Switzerland was formally declared independent of the German empire. In 1798 the B'rench occupied the country and established the Helvetic republic. In 1803 Napoleon res stored the cantonal confederation and new were added. The congress of Vienna in 1815 decreed the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland. Geneva, of course, at one suggests noted men and famous events John Calvin, Rousseau and others; the Geneva convention, the Alabama claims, etc. Modern Geneva Is an exceedingly attractive city. It Is beautifully situated at the southwest end of Lake Geneva, which here narrows and pours out into the Rhone, which Is shortly joined by the . Arve. The Rhone Is crossedby nine fine bridges which join the old town on the left bank, with the principal residence qunrter of the foreign colony on the right bank. There are many fine structures of Interest. The College de St. Antoine, founded by Calvin, has nearly 2,000 students, over half of Geneva is noted as nn edu-- whom are foreigners. cational center. The Cathedral of St. Peter is Byzantine In character and Is said to have been built In 1124. The botanical gardens are Interesting. There are Reveral museums. Including the M11 see Ratln ; the Fol museum, with collections of Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; (he Athcneum, devoted to the fine arts, and the Museum of Natural History, containing de Snussure's geological collection." The lie Jean Jauques Rousseau attracts many visitors. Tourists ore shown the house of Calvin, on whom the possibly chief historical fame of the city rests. Lake Geneva Is one of the beauty spots of the world. It is about 45 miles long and Is eight miles wide at Its place of greatest width. Its northern and western shores afford striking views of Mount Blanc and Its chain. The lake Is very deep and a beautiful dark blue. New boulevards encircle Geneva; they are laid out along tho lines of the old fortifications which were demolished in 1851. Handsome villas crown the surrounding heights.. Altogether the tourist visits a more attractive city and one mora . seldom Interesting historically city-state- s. ). delightful atmosphere. Charles. Bonnet continued to carry out his study of nature, and when he lost his sight gave up his time to philosophical problems, strengthening his scholars' belief in an after life. Haller used to come from Berne to work with him. Learned men and scholars came from all parts of Europe to visit them. In this way the small circle of Genthod, passionately interested in scientific culture and Christian philosophy, became a European center In direct opposition to the one at Ferney, where Voltaire derided the austereness of Geneva and tried his best to destroy It. After the death of Charles Bonnet his property returned to the de Rive family, which was connected with Madame de Staei Her house is near Genthod, and Corrinne came often on fine summer days to git on the terrace of the philoso- pher and writer. The de Pourtales house was built about 1750 by Jean Louis Saladin, a diplomat of Geneva attached to the court of Louis XV, who as a mark of appreciation gave him his portrait In oils. The de Saladin house Is on a height and commands It is to be seen in the a wide view of the lnk center of two broad avenues with Its simple gray front, Its semicircular outbuildings, all magnificently located. Beyond the fields that slope gently are the trees of the Creux de Genthod, the rare spe- cles that Anil Lullin had collected at a. great cost, chestnuts that were brought from Lyons In carts, Immense vistas of foliage, wonderful tree architecture infolding the old French garden. Along the walks where the two scholars medl-talearound that house of pure lines, th'e meeting place of so many distinguished men, a breath of European thought seems to float In this Genevan atmosphere, say the enthusiasts. An Intimate communion seems to unite nil these grand and simple homes to the grand old trees, the gentle distant slopes behind which appear the Alps, the long, clear stretch of lake. To all this vista, at the same time so big and so complete that it would seem impossible to destroy this Incomparable harmony certainly these homes and historical grounds will remain as they are and the new buildings will be erected Inland on the plateau. Geneva Is on old, old city. Its origin is lost In antiquity, but It was of sufficient Importance In Caesar's time to be mentioned In his It was early the seat of a bishopric. It. was one of the capitals of the Burgundlans. In the sixth century it passed to the Franks. In the eleventh century It became Incorporated with the German empire. About that time the temporal was added to the spiritual power of the bishops. The dukes of Savoy began to encroach on the temporal power and at the same time the burghers took n hand In Affairs. The struggles between the dukes of Savoy and the citizens ended In favor of 11 ). ca.i-ton- full-lengt- h d. "Com-roentares- ." . HOUSES NOW IN USE LIKE HEADS g Food Satisfactory for Poultry Flock Is Simple and Inexpensive. Protein-Containin- Insulated Structure Best Adapted (Prepared by the merit of to Southern Climates. A and Aroostook Type With Concrete or Masonry Basement Walls and Wooden Superstructure Is Product of Maine. FISH United States Depart- -. Agriculture.) simple inexpensive substitute for meat scraps, which often are hard to obtain at the average butcher shop. Is to utilize fish heads in the poultry ration. Arrangements usually can be made with local fish dealers to save n these heads, particularly if the will furnish bjickets in which the refuse may be kept until he calls As they come from the . for them. dealer's shop, the fish heads are tough and covered with heavy scales and gristle. However, underneath is fine tender meat which the hens relish The poultryman can soften keenly. the coarse outer shell by boiling the fish head in water for five to ten min utes and then pouring off the water and throwing the fish heads in among the chickens. In many instances the- dealers are glad to get rid of the fish heads, and on the basis of actual food value the poultry keeper can afford topay 4 or 5 cents for a quart of fish heads which provide a satisfactory g food for his flock- poul-tryma- (Prepared bj the United States Depart-mer- it of Agriculture.) The insulated potato house Is not used extensively, and as a rule is better adapted to southern than to northern climates. The construction feature of such a house is the thorough Insulation of its walls, ceilings, doors, In northern locations and windows. such a house must be heated by a stove. The Aroostook type of storage house, with concrete or masonry basement walls and wooden superstructure, is distinctively a product of Maine and confined largely to that state. It is expensive and is always located on a side hill or knoll in order that advantage may be taken of a ground level entrance. The basements are usually from 8 to 12 feet deep, and most of them have a capacity of several thousand barrels. Generally the only provision for ventilation is by trapdoors in the floor through which the filling of the bins is completed. Occasionally a ventilator is found in the roof. These houses, although practical In Maine, will never supersede the dugout pit or storage cellar now used In the middle and far western states. Each of these types of storages has distinctive features which peculiarly adapt it to Its own environment, but do not necessarily preclude use In other localities. The artificially refrigerated potato storage house is confined practically to the storage of northern-grow- n seed potatoes held in cold storage for second-crop planting In the South. There is little demand for such a house In northern sections, but it is thought that community plants of this type could be profitably used by the southern truck growers, as they could purchase their supplies of seed In the fall and have them delivered before the arrival of cold weather. The seed potatoes could be stored throughout the winter in the house and be available in excellent condition when desired the following season. cold-stora- Tuberculosis In Poultry. Tuberculosis in poultry Is much more prevalent than poultry breeders realize. It Is responsible for a large share of the unexplained losses among chicks and adult stock. Moist Mash for Chicks. A moist mash will whet the appe- protein-containin- The silo's the thing. 7 The early threshed barley usually fares best in the market All of the vegetables raised in tbft garden should be utilized for food. , Soils that have no crop on them, or the harvest fields as soon as the grain is off, will be better for a good disking. ' Vegetables in the late summer garmust be kept growing without check in order to obtain satisfactory results. den It takes care and attention to improve land so that the crops may each year the seasons are favorable! r Shoveling silage out of a silo Is play compared with prying "corn shocks out of frozen ground and snow banks. Do not forget to continue the fight and lice. They must be fought all the time In all sections and in all seasons. on mites '"' Plowing up the -- .old pasture for flax has one drawback that must be considered it may make the feed problem harder to meet tites of the youngsters and hasten Careful packing means much. It rrowth. They relish a feed once a pays to arrange vegetables In the most lay of t!ie moist mash, but it should tasteful manner. Here is an opporlot ive fed sloppy. tunity to increase nrofits.