|Paper||Bear River Valley Leader|
|Rights||No Copyright - United States (NoC-US)|
|Publisher||Digitized by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah|
|Paper||Bear River Valley Leader|
BEAR RIVER VALLEY LEADER Live Stock Dairy Horticulture Poultry 7fs Leader's The Home and Farm Horn Economics Household Women's Young People Department .... Contributions LICENSED INSPECTORS by Noted Writers .... OR FOREIGN ' jX-g- Marmalades may be prepared from various kinds of fruit. The apple is perhaps the best known. A conserve which is a marmalade of mixtures of fruit is always an addition to any menu. Here are a few worth and keeping handing down Orange Marmalade. Take one dozen oranges. t-half a doze lemons. peel very thin and remove the white inner rind. Chop the rind very tine, or put through the meat grinder; also grind the pulp: To a pint of pulp and rind add one and pints of water; boil twenty minutes. from the hent and let stand twenty-fou- r hours, then measure and add one and quarts of sugar to one quart of pulp. Boil an hour and a half, or until the fruit is thick. Amber Marmalade. Take one each of large grapefruit, orange and lemon, wash and wipe and cut flue, shred the peeling in thin strips, discarding the seefls. Add three and a half quarts of cold water and let stand over night. The next day cook until the peel Is very tender and again set aside over night. The next day add five pounds of sugar and cook until the sirup Is thick. Store as jelly. Tomato Conserve. Take four quarts of ripe, fine tomatoes; add four pounds of sugar, six large lemons and ote cupful of raisins. Prepare as usual and cook until thick. Seal Id glasses. one-quart- He-mo- one-quart- ment of Agriculture.) voked. large percentage of the wheat delivered at the terminal markets for interstate or foreign shipment is placed in the highest grades of the federal grain standards by grain inspectors licensed by the United States department of agriculture. Duluth and are two of the largest terminal wheat markets in the country. Be tween January 15, 1918, when the revised federal grades became effective, 0 and December 31, 1918, more than cars of hard red spring wheat were Inspected at Duluth, of which nearly 85 per cent was placed in grade No. 1. At Minneapolis nearly 50,000 cars were inspected, of which more than 70 ter cent was placed in grade No. 1. When a farmer sells his wheat to the local elevator, a grade is placed Tipon It usually by the elevator manager and not by a licensed inspector of the federal government, because few such inspectors are located at country points. Unless the grain is ground at the local mill, it is flually shipped to a terminal market, where it is graded by a disinterested inspector who Is licensed by the secretary of agriculture. In deciding the grade the inspector uses the grades established by the United States department of agriculture, which are often referred to as the federal grades. Enforcing Grain Standards Act. In enforcing the grain standards act, the authority of the federal government reaches only shipments of grain in Interstate commerce from one state to another or to foreign countries. The department can not control the country buyer or elevator man, nor the miller who buys grain on the spot, for such transactions usually are not. While these buyers may interstate. use federal grades, the grading is not tinder the jurisdiction of the department. If they do not assign the grades fairly and accurately, only the state officials can reach them. The licensed inspectors, however, are under the control of the department. Such inspectors are not allowed to continue to Inspect unless they are competent. If anyone Is employed in an elevator or mill or has any connection with the buying or selling of grain he can not secure a license to inspect grain, and If he does not do satisfactory work A is 40,-00- Practically all the grain from Minnesota and North Dakota, and a largu part of that from South Dakota, is eventually shipped to either Minneapolis or Duluth and It is there graded by licensed inspectors. With the exception of durum, practically all of the wheat produced In the territory mentioned is hard red spring. This kind of wheat is divided into three subclasses or divisions, according to the percentage of dark, hard and vitreous (flinty) kernels. For bread-niaing purposes it is generally believed that flour from wheat containing a large percentage of the dark, hard and flinty kernels is superior because of its stronger, more elastic, and more abundant gluten. This is the charac ter that has given the spring wheats-othe Northwest and the hard winter wheats of certain sections of the Southwest their enviable reputation in the world's market, and Is responsible for the almost universal premium millers are willing to pay for these wheats in normal times. The subclasses for hard red spring wheat are: Dark northern spring, containing 75 per cent or more dark, hard and flinty kernels, and not more than 10 per cent or less of humpback ; northern spring, which, contains less than 75 per cent and more than 25 per cent dark, hard and flinty kernels, and not more than 10 per cent or less humpback; red spring, which contains 25 per' cent or less dark, hard and flinty kernels, or more than 10 per cent humpback. Of the 41,711 cars of hard red spring wheat received and inspected at Duluth during the last half of 1918, cars, or 35.1 per cent, were classed as dark northern spring; 25,897 cars, or 02.1 per cent, were classed as northern spring; and 1.1G8 cars, or 2.8 per cent, were classed as red spring. There are six grades numbered from 1 to 5, the sixth being called the sample grade. Of the hard red spring wheat received at Duluth, 84.4 percent was placed in grade No. 1, and 8.3 per cent in grade No. 2. making more than 90 per cent graded No. 2 or better. For the same period 49,252 cars were inspected at Minneapolis, 71.9 per cent of the cars being placed In grade No. 1, and 14.3 per cent In grade No. 2. Four seeds I drop In every hill; One for the worm to harm, One for the frost to kill. And two for the barn. k f 14,-64- 0 SEASONABLE GOOD THINGS. delicious way of serving beets, the tender young ones, is to cook them un til tender ; then chop and return to the fire, pour A over a d French and dressing serve as a vegetable. Creamed Eggs With Sardines. il e 1 four tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 h add of a cup ful of bread crumbs and a cupful of thin cream, bring to the boiling point, then add two eggs finely chopped, a half a box of sardines freed from the skin and bones, and Fait, pepper and paprika to taste. Bring again to the boiling point and serve nt once. of Drop Cookies. Cream a cupful of shortening, odd of a cupful of ginger sirup and half a cupful of strained honey with one egg slightly beaten. Mix and sift two and s cupfuls of flour with two teaspoonfuis of cream of tartar, one teuppoouful of soda and half a of salt. Add to the first mixture, beat well, drop from the tip of a teaspoon onto a buttered s,heet and bake In a moderate oven. Spanish Ragout. In a deep put some fat or oil, slice u few onions and add a clove or two of gnr-lia little mace, suit and pepper, brown well hen lay on top of these vegetables a pig's liver wilh very little water, just' enough to keep from burning. Cover and cook two hours. The liver will shrink ind absorb most of the contents of the pan. When cold It one-fouri- hard-cooke- d one-fourt- h one-thir- d three-fourth- e c, I slices nicely. Newport Pound Cake. Cream of a cu.rful of butter, add ights one and a half cupfuls of flour gradually, and a teaspooniul of vanilla. Bent the yolks of five tggs until thick and add one and, a nnd half cupfuls of powdered sugar gradually. Combine the tiiix.ures, add the whites of the eggs beaten stiff and lft over one tenspoonful of baking powder. Brat thoroughly, turn Into a deep buttered cake pan and biike one hour In a moderate oven. Mustard Pickles. To a gallon of f cupful of musvinegar add' tard, one cupful of salt and two cupfuls of brown sugar. Drop In the pickles as they are gathered; cover , with horseradish leaves. In Be sure - to put store for winter a few quarts of cherries as follows: Wnsh the prepared cherries unstemmed and place In a fruit Jar; half fill the jar with good vinegar and fill with cold water, add a teaspoonful of salt to a quart and seal as usual. They make a delicious pickle to serve In the place of olives. seven-e- LEGUMES Fungiw Which Causes Disease Lives Over Winter on Dead Leaves Two Characteristics. by the United States Department of Agriculture.) and red Common alfalfa leaf-sp- (Prepared leaf-spare similar In appear-finc- e but ore caused by two distinct fungi, says a specialist of the United States department of agriculture who has published the results of studies of s In Bulle-tl- n alfalfa and clover leaf-spot- greatest loss during wet weather, and cases have been reported where It has destroyed half of the alfalfa crop. Little Is known of the method by which fields become Infested. Efforts to exclude the disease from alfalfa fields In localities remote from other alfalfa by the surface sterilization of the seed have given no success. Evidently, In these experiments at least, the department pathologist says tho fungus was not carried on the surfaco of the seed probably not with the seed nt nil. The source of Infestation In such fields still furnishes an Interesting problem. The fungus which causes alfalfa lives over winter on dead leaves which escape decay. There ore EXERCISE IS VERY ESSENTIAL caused two characteristics of leaf-spby this particular fungus which usualPastures Are Necessary for Proper ly serve to distinguish It from pots Growth and Development of roused by other fungi. One is the cirLittle Porkers. cular shape and small size of the spots, and the other Is a small raised disk Exercise Is verj essentlnl for the Ir. the center of the fully developed sow and the pigs. Pens do not give Bpot. The disease Is one of the most se- the animals a chance to take enough for rious nnd widely known of those which exercise. Pastures are required of and gro-vtthe development causes tlga It of alfalfa. attack the foliage leaf-sp- lemon-colore- d one-hal- V. Y, iAM .iS Aeromarine seaplane taking oc a bag ol late foreign mail for delivery to the steamer. Adriatic, whlc.t had left New Kork'for Europe several hours before. 2 sale of surplus army food in the New York custoir 3 Senator Thomas of Colorado who denounced as "nothing short of treason" the de"house to employees. - .. .. mands of the railway brotherhoods. ; NEWS REVIEW OF CURRENTJVENTS : ""cjc? Grain Sampler Obtaining S amples of Wheat in a Car. his license may be suspended or re (Prepared by the United Stales Depart- , 1 MANY MARMALADES. 759. j -- The men who labor on and on With minds and Angers skilled They are the great unsatisfied Who plan and fight and build. tt -- SHIPMENT The men who are not satisfied Are they who set the pace The men who do not meet defeat With calm, contented face. clover i v7 L GRADE ALL GRAIN IN INTERSTATE LEAF SPOT HARMS ria-T- nil- - i Relations With Mexico Strained When U. S. Troons Cross Border in Chase of Bandits. CAPRANZA PROTEST FUTILE President Wilson Discusses Peace Treaty With Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Without Vis-ible Resul Progress of the War on Profiteers and Hoarders. By EDWARD W. PICKARD. the other nations would have to be asked to accept the hinguage of the senate as the language of the treaty; it would be especially humiliating to have to ask the assent of the German Senator Fall national assembly. called the president's attention to the fact that Germany Is not to be bl original member of the league and consequently any amendments to the covenant proposed before her admission would not be submitted tp her. Mr. Wilson admitted this was true and that the point had not occurred to him, but he Insisted that Germany already has a relationship to the league and that it was the plan to admit her immediately. As for article 10, the crux of the whole fight, President Wilson interpreted It as follows : If the league calls on the United States to send troops abroad to preserve the territorial Integrity of another member state from external aggression, the United States will be under an absolutely compelling moral obligation, though not a legal obligation, to comply. But the league cannot call on the United States for such aid unless the American member votes his approval In accord with American Relations with Mexico flared up again alarmingly last week and the amateur and unofficial prophets freely predicted that we would be at war with our southern neighbor within a Once more American short time. troops fiave crossed the border, with' After It was all over, Senator Hitchout asking permission of Carranza, for the purpose of capturing Mexicans cock said the president had clarified who have committed outrages against many Involved questions in a wonderAmerican citizens and for whose ac- ful manner and that speedy ratificaSenator tions the whiskered one says he can tion would be the result. not be. held jesponsible. Lodge said Mr. Wilson had not given 'ine capture and holding for ransom them much real information and that of the two army aviators who had lost the admissions he had made had vintheir way was the act of a small band dicated the criticisms, leveled at the of bandits, btit the administration at league covenant. Between these exWashington stiows a growing inclina- tremes stand the "mild reservation-ists.- " To capture their votes, Senator tion to step across the border and "clean things up" If the federal govern- Pittman of Nevada took the reservament of Mexico cannot do the job. It tions they advocate, called them "inappears that a stern warning was is- terpretations or understandings," and sued some time ago to Carranza, to put them into a resolution which he which he replied at length, stating that presented to the senate for Its adophis government would do and was do- tion apart from the resolution of ratiing all in its power to protect the lives fication. He asserted that he was actand property of foreigners in Mexico. ing with the president's approval, In this case of the captured aviators whereupon Senator Hitchcock, adminwho were released on payment; of part istration leader, felt himself ignored of the ransom federal troops were and showed that Pittman's resolution was not much to his liking. The opsent after the offenders. The American punitive expedition consisted - of ponents of the covenant were brutalpart of the Eighth cavalry, aided by ly outspoken in condemning the resolsome army flyers. They caught two ution.1 In the course of the lively debandits and killed four, others who bate Mr. Pittman admitted that the League of Nations was "hardly more opened Are on them when surrounded. Under Instructions from his govern- than a meeting place where the consensus of the civilized world may be ment. Ambassador Bonillas entered; protest against the "invasion" and de- obtained and its moral force brought manded the Immediate withdrawal of to bear." "If you'll write that into the league 'he troops. The reply, drafted by President Wilson, was 0 flat refusal to covenant there will be no difficulty " The about its ratification," interrupted with the demand. comply .Mexico City was aroused to Senator Reed of Missouri (Dem.). of press loud protest. One or two of the- - paParis correspondents predict that pers there, however, realize the seriousness of the situation that has been the peace conference will adjourn created by the numerous outrages within two or three weeks., and that when it reassembles In November or against foreigners and admit that unless Carranza radically 'changes his December the United States will not be represented unless In the meantime policies, he will invite disaster to himthe senate shall have ratified the self and to Mexico. In the United States indignation Is treaty and decided that we shall acby, no means confined to the border cept mandates. The work for the constates or to those who have suffered, ference after It reconvenes will be the financially or otherwise, at the hands partition of Turkey and the settleof the Mexicans. The demand Is gen- ment of the Thraclan and Adriatic eral that our government give to questions. If the .United States does American citizens everywhere the full not take part In these, both Italy ajid protection to which they are entitled, Greece expect to win their demands, and thare Is a feeling that unless It for the Americans are now their only does so our membership In the opponents. As to Thrace, the American delegation Insists on the creation League of Nations would be farcical. of a buffer state that will give BulWhich brings" us to the second great garia access to the sea. The Greeks event of the week, the unprecedented and Turks, who make up the bulk of meeting of the senate committee on (he population of Dedeagatch disforeign relailons with President Wilson trict, involved in this plan, are. bitterIn the White House for the elucidaly opposed to the continuation of anytion of many points In connection thing like Bulgarian rule there and with the peace treaty and league are reported to be preparing to resist In accordance with the it by arms. It is not the Intention of covenant. desires of both parties, the entire' the peace conference to leave any part proceedings were given full publicity, of Thrace In the possession of Bulhut a study of them and of the subse- garia. The council of five hopes that the quent comments of the participants Aiisirlnn treaty will be signed within does not show that much was accomplished In the way of removing the ob- a week. It also Is feeling optimistic stacles to ratification of the treaty. about Hungary, where a new coalition Mr, Wilson made a long preliminary cabinet has been formed, and thinks statement to the senators find then an- It may soon be able to recognize the swered their many questions with all government at Budapest and present His position regarding the Hungarian treaty for signature. frankness. The week's news from Russia was Interpretations and reservations might be summarized thus: If ordinary com- somewhat more encouraging, for Admon sense Is used In reading the miral Kolchak appeared to have treaty and covenant they are unnec- stopped his retreat and to have essary; If they merely accompany the checked the pursuing bolshevlsts. act of ratification there Is no objec- The red forces were ousted from tion to thetn i but If they are made a Odessa, and lost ground In some other part of the resolution of ratification, regions. In the Gulf of Finland a tong delays would result because all British fleet encountered a number o public-sen- timent T bolshevist vessels and sank four of them, thereafter concentrating against The fortress was bomKroustadt. barded and the city set on fire. The' situation in Uppe Silesia Is confused and confusing. The Germans and the Poles are fighting each other and both in a desultory fashion thei-eh hce contending with striking workers of the country who have become so violent th? Vie German authorities proclaimed Martial law. The new German constitution baff just gone into effect, and a summary of it has been made public in America. It seems to be in most respects an admirable document, designed to establish and maintain a moderate and commendable foruf of republican government, more strongly centralized The powers of the than our own. president are very great. The equality of all men and women before the law is asserted, and titles of nobility are abolished except "as a part of a person's name." It is noticeable, however, that Germany is still called an empire. It may be added, as a matter of interest, that the former kaiser has Just bought a place of residence in. Holland, and that current reports of his fast failing health are flatly contradicted by a correspondent who sees William' nearly every day. Uncle Sam's war against the profiteers and hoarders went on steadily if not so swiftly as the victims of the H. C. of L. might have hoped. The ultimate consumer hailed with enthusiasm the assertion by Attorney General Palmer that the small retailers as well as the big retailers and the wholesalers are going to feel the heavy hand of the department of 'justice. He appeared before the house committee on agriculture to discuss proposed amendments to the food control act, and argued against a provision that would exempt from prosecution as profiteers those retailers who do an annual business below $100,000. Many of the complain Is of extortionate prices, he said, are against the small dealers and Jie added hts would feel hopeless if he were restricted to the larger dealers. Mr. Palmer also asked the committee to withdraw the proposed provision giving the president authority to fix prices. This, he said, he considered unnecessary and calculated to provoke too much discussion. The only amendments he favored were one extending the scope of the act to include wearing apparel and containers of foods, feeds and fertilizers, and one Imposing a penalty of $5,000 or Imprisonment for two years for profiteering. The great quantities of foodstuffs which have been seized in various cities by the agents of the department of justice will not be placed on the market until proper court, proceedings have been completed. - Meanwhile the government Is disposing of Its vast surplus army stores practically at cost, nnd the way In which hundreds of thousands of people struggle for a chance to buy these commodities Is sufficient evidence of their need. The actors strike, after spreading to Chicago, became so stubborn a struggle there that the unions of and stage hands were called on for help, with the result that nearly every theater was obliged to close. Efforts to end the strike amicably In New York were fruitless, and It was said there it might be extended to cover the entire country and all hall shows, including the movies. Within a week there probably will be a conference between the officials of the steel workers' unions and representatives of the United States Steel corporation. If It Is refused by the latter, a committee headed by Samuel Gompers Is empowered to call a strike forthwith. The corporation maintains the open shop, and the unions wish to present to It a rather portentous list of 12 basic demands. Cudnhy, Wis., and Hammond, Ind., were the scenes of strike riots and state .troops were hurried to both places to restore order,' which they rau-slca- did. The farmers have won their tight against daylight saving, for although the rest of the population Is unanimous In Its favor, the bill for repeal of the law was passed by both house and senat mr the vet of PrtsMtat V'Uaoo. ' ' ' .