|Paper||Bear River Valley Leader|
|Rights||No Copyright - United States (NoC-US)|
|Publisher||Digitized by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah|
|Paper||Bear River Valley Leader|
BEAR RIVER VALLEY LEADER Live Stock Dairy Horticulture Poultry The Leaded Home and Farm Home Economic! Household Women' Department .... Contributions Noted Writers by It Is Important that engine operators familiarize themselves with the tind effects produced on gas engines by cold weather and with the easiest ways of overcoming them, for wif'n such knowledge It Is comparative!.--' easy to start a gas engine In the severest weather. The cold affects starting In Hire? ways: (1) It makes It harder to crank the engine, because the oil congeals on the hearings and around the piston and valves, (2) where a dry battery is used It weakens the spark, (31 'ft causes gasoline, to vaporize very slowly or not at all. therefore mak'-It difficult to obtain a mixture of gasoline vapor and air which can be !. nited by the spark. T:ie congealing of the oil is not uu ally a very serious difficulty, although. It may necessitate a great deal nior- A liteffort In cranking the engine. tle gasoline or kerosene on all ben Ings which can be reached will heli . and a liberal priming of gasoline !. the cylinder will tend to thin the '! i round the piston as we'll as aid " obtaining a good mixture, as noted . -- 'lOW. y Do Not Use Kerosene. Kerosene will Interfere with the forming of a combustible mixture. Also vhere gasoline or kerosene has been !used on bearings to make cranking easier, the engine should not be put lunder a load until the bearings have ihad time to get well lubricated again Hvilh good oil. The effect of cold on the Ignition system will be noticeable only wherj dry cells ore used, with the exception that where the engine i equipped with a timer which Is oil' n. the congealing of the oil may interfere with the contact of the timer, in which ens little kerosene or gasoline may be necessary to thin the oil. When dry cells are cold they become less r.c-tive, and at extremely low temperature they will cease giving current. Therefore a dry battery should be kept in a warm place during the winter not In use, so as to be active when needed. BJ this has not been done it should be set In a warm place for several minutes before attempting to start the motor in cold weather. Never warm a battery by Intense heat directly to the cells, hut allow them to warm slowly. While In operation they, will generate suffi cient heat to keep them active. With cells which have been sealed in paraffin or other wax, care should be exercised not to expos them to a high enough to nieit the wax. Cold Retards Vaporizing. The most serious effect of coll weather on gas engine operation ls attributable to the fact that cold r tai'ds the vaporizing of the fuel. Gasoline as a liquid will not burn ; 't nust first be turned Into a vapor and this, vapor mixotf with a certain amount of air. A thin spray of gasoline In warm air will quickly turn to n vapor and mix with the surroundi ing air, but at low temperatures considerable part of such a spray wll' remain a liquid, hence will not mak an explosive mixture. The remedy A greater quantity of Is obvious. .so, as to gasoline must be Rive off more vapor In order to make a mixture rich enough to he combustible, or the air must be heated so tha gasoline will vaporize more readily, or combination of these expedient must be tried. If the weather Is only moderately cold. It Is usually sufficient to prime the engine In some way, that Is, Inject a small quantity of gasoline (about a spoonful) into the cylinder, ordinarily either through a petcock or plug, In order that-morfuel may be present,, hence more vapor. Whenever an engine is primed, a short time should be allowed for the fuel to vaporize and mix with the ulr before attempting to crank the engine. If this Is not (lone the vapor will pas out a little at a time through the ex app'-T-In- START NEW WAR ON VERMIN Either Chickens or Lice Will Thrive in Same Poultry House Begin i Fight on Pests. haust valve as the engine Is crankel, and the priming will not serve Its purpose. Heat Must Be Applied. In very cold weather, however, pric- ing with ordinary commercial gasolina will sometimes be insufficient, and heat must be applied by some means in order to produce vaporization of Mu fuel, unless a more volatile fuel is used for primiug. A very satisfactory way to apply heat is to put some hot water into the cooling system, thus warming the cylinders ami assisting in vaporizing the gasoline that Is drawn in with the charge or injected us priming. In this case, also, the engine should b allowed to stand a few minutes to permit the gasoline to vaporize. It Is :iot necessary that the entire cooling system be filled with hot water; if enough Is used to heat the cylinders so the engine will start, cold water may then be added until the radiator is full. Tills method, of course, will be practicable only with small or medium-sized engines; with some of the larger sizes of tractors the amount of hot water usually available' will.. have little effect used in this way. If only a little hot water Is available, It may be more effective If pourei slowly over the intake manifold, and the carburetor as well, if th'e carburetor is covered so no water can enter it. A very effective way of heating the Intake manifold Is to wrap a cloth around it and pour the hot water over the cloth, or dip the cloth In" hot water and then wrap it around the manifold. If the manifold can be heated It will warm the air that touches It as It enters the engine; this warm air will cause the gasoline spray which it carries to vaporize. As a greater proportion of the air passing through i small pipe comes in contact with the walls of the pipe than in the case of a large one, this method works best with engines having a comparatively small manifold. When depending upon heat from the manifold to warm the air, the engine should be cranked fairly rapidly, so as not to allow the warmed mixture to remain long In contact with the cold walls of the combustion chamber anfl so cause the to condense into liquid again. '..Open, flame Not Favored. The use of an open flame around a gas engine at ordinary temperatures Is not to be recommended, on account of the possibility of fire. It always Introduces an element of danger. '" One of the most effective method of starting a cold engine, and one absolutely safe, Is to remove the spark plug (or Igniter block) and heat It !n a fire or in the flame of a blowtorch prime the engine, and then quickly replace the. spark plug. The charge Is ulmos'. sure to ignite. A drop or two of gf.soline put- on the Inside of the plug Just before replacing it insures the presence of vaporized fuel near the spirk when the engine Is cranked. Where, for any reason, It is impracticable or inadvisable to apply heat In any of the ways indicated. It may bo possible to heat a piece of metal :ipe the sizeif the. air Intake of the carbureter then place this so all the air entering the carbureter must pass through It. This Is nearly as effective as a heated manifold. Such a pipe If desired. may be made red-ho- t Provide Volatile Fuel. Another means of starting eng.ncs In cold weather, which Is practiced to a considerable extent. Is to provide some very volatile fuel with .which M prime It, ether or "high-test- " gasoline being perhaps most commonly use I. As these will vaporize at lower temperatures than ordinary commercial gasoline, they make it easier to obtain a combustible mixture. In using ether, care must be exercised not to use foo much, as dangerous pressures may be created because of the rapidity with which it burns. In many cases it 's mixed with about equal parts of gasoline. There Is no danger in theuse of the high-tes- t gasoline. other ground grain until the whole mass assumes a crumbly condition. All can be fed that the hens will eat up clean, and If any of the material s f Is left after or of an hour It should he removed. If allowed to lie It may spoil and would be very bad for the hens." three-quarter- one-hal- Chickens and lice both cannot thrive the same poultry house, but either Let It be the one or the other. will. YOUNG PIGS PROPERLY chickens; fight (he lice. All local pou'-(r- y FEED can furnish merchants you supply Porkers Need Concentrates Rich In with, effective 'powder and disinfectMa' Muscle and ants. terial to Be Thrifty. In Bone-Makin- GRIND SCRAPS FOR CHICKENS g Weaned pigs need good concentrates rich In muscle and material to Insure thrifty de. velopment. .Accustom them to their feed gradually, as will readily produce scouring. From 10 to 12 days are essential In getting young pigs adjusted to the change. However, they should he fed lightly at least three times dally during this time. The following rations are good for young pigs: (1) Skimmllk and wheat middlings. (2). One part ground grain of some kind to two parts wheat middlings or rice meat that are Kitchen Waste Best Prepared for Feed by Running Through Ordinary ' Meat Grinder. "Table scraps and kitchen waste are best prepared for feeding by running them through an ordinary meat grinder," says H. W. Sanborn, extension poultry husbandman, U. 8. D. A. "After the material has been put through the grinder It Is usually a rather moist mesa, and It Is well to mix It with some cornincal, bran, or bone-makin- g over-feedin- g .... T --If OVERCOMING DIFFICULTIES. IN STARTING GASOLINE ENGINE DURING COLD WEATHER . Young People mm m . mmm KIT LTIlN CABINET I V eli Would you throw away a diamond because it pricked you? One good friend Is not to be weighed against the Jewels of the earth. If there is coolness or unkindness between us. let us ome face to face and have It out. Quick, before love grows cold. Hobrt Smith. TASTY A most delicious and economical accompaniment to roast beef is Richmond Corn . Cake. To s three-fourth- of a cupful of canned corn add one-ha- one-hal-f table-spoonfu- l, of sugar and two eggs well beaten. " Mix and s ift of a cupful ot flour. ;re teaspoonful of salt, one ta "lespoon ful of baking powder. Combine mix tures and drop by spoonfuls In buttered muffin rings; set In a buttered dripping pan ; bake in moderated oven. Cadillac Chicken; Wipe a chicken dressed as for broiling; sprinkle with salt und pepper; place In a broiler and broil over a clear fire for eight minutes. Remove to a pan and rub over with the following mixture: Cream four tablespoonfuls of butter, add' one teaspoonful of. mus-larone-hateaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of vinegar and one-hateaspoonful of paprika. Sprinkle with s of a cupful of buttered crumbs and bake until the chicken is tender. Swedish .Halibut. Wipe, a silce of halibut weighing one oound. Place In a shallow earthen baking dish ; sprinkle with salt, pepper and brush with melted butter. Drain canned tomatoes s and add of a cupful of pulp; add a teaspoonful of powdered sugar and spread over the fish. Cover with one-hasliced onion. Bake 20 minutes ; pour over of a cupful of heavy cream, and bake ten minutes. Remove the onion and gs!sh with parsley. , Jellied Prunes. Pick over, wash and d soak of a pound of prunes In two cupf uls of cold water ; cook In the same water until soft. To the prune water add enough water to make- - two f cupfuls. Soak two and of gelatin in half a cupful of cold water; dissolve in the hot liquid and add one cupful of sugar, of a cupful of lemon Juice; add prunes and chill. Stir twice while cooling, to keep the prunes from settseven-eighth- well-grease- d lf lf three-fourth- three-fourth- lf d one-thir- table-spoonfu- ls one-hal- one-fourt- h ling- , Why this longing, this forever sighing, For the far off, unattained and dlmf". While the beautiful, all around thee . lying. Offers its low, perpetual hymn. Harriet Wlnslow.. " , SEASONABLE . DISHES. We may still indulge in the favorite shell fish. Try this recipe: Norfolk rwctrn Cover the bottom of a baking dish with three-- I fourths of a cunful of hot boiled rice: cover the f a pint rice with of oysters ; pour ovei one-hacupful of whit sauce, dot with huttei and sprinkle with salt and pepper; repent, using the same amount of Ingr.j dlents. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake in a hot oven 30 minutes. Barbecued Ham. Soak two thin slices of ham in lukewarm water minutes. Drain, wipe, cook In a hoi frying pan until delicately browned and remove to a hot platter. To the fat in the pan add two tablespoonfuN of vinegar,, one teaspoonful of musof a teaspoonful of tard, yt teaspoonful paprika and one-hasugar. When thoroughly heated pour over ham and serve at once. Cracker Plum Pudding. Pour four cupfuls of scalded milk over one and cupfuls of rolled cracker crumbs and let stand until cool; add one cupful of sugar, four beaten eggs a grated nutmeg, one teaone-had of a cupspoonful of salt and ful of melted butter.' Parboil one and one-hncupfuls of raisins In boiling water, cover, add to the mixture. TuVn Into a buttered baking dish and hake hours, stirslowly two and one-haServe with ring the first half hour. ' any preferred sanoe. Fruit Cream. Soak a tablespoon-fu- l of granulated gelatin In' of a cupful of cold water, dissolve tn h of a cupful of scalded milk' f a cupful of sugar and add and one teaspoonful of lemon Juice. Strain Into dish and set Into Ice wa ter, stirring constantly, and when the mixture begins to thicken add th whites of two eggs beaten stiff and one d cup of heavy cream beaten stiff, of a cupful of stewed prunes cut In bits, three figs chopped and two tablespoonfuls of blanched and chopped almonds. Mold and chill. 0 one-hal- 'J e 1 Belgian workmen beginning to restore the entrance and subway connections of the great railway station in Ghent, destroyed by the Germans. 2 Scene at Hendon aerodrome, England, w hen Lord Londonderry for the government presented to the Canadian government fifteen airplanes. 3 Col. F. M. Wlse commander of the Second battalion. Fifth marines, In the battle of Chateau Thierry, and Mrs. Wise uhotographed on the colonel's arrival in . New York. ; - "cupful of lf milk, one-thir- f wjjJ ff TIT-BIT- lf one-eight- h lf one-four- lf one-thir- lf lf h one-fourt- one-hal- one-thir- for their action, for the Republican leaders would have permitted the passage of some of the bills, especially that adding $750,000,000 to the revolving fund for railroad administration. Two measures that did get through in the last hours were "the Victory loan and billion dollar wheat guarantee President Departs for France bills. The purpose of the filibuster was to compel the president to call Without Senate's Approval the new congress In extra session In. a short time, and so urgent are many of of Nations' League. the measures that failed of passage that It seems likely he will have to yield to the demand. When he left CHANGES MAY BE NECESSARY America, however, he appeared as determined as ever not to summon congress until his return. . His. statement Filibuster in Senate Kills Urgent Bills to the public, scoring the obstructionists, was rathe? unfortunate. The peoand Early Extra Session Is Pre. . ple read : dicted Progress of the Peace "It Is not tn the Interest of the Conference Delegates right conduct of public affairs that I in Paris. should call the congress In special session while it is impossible for me to be By EDWARD W. PICKARD. in Washington, because of a more When President Wilson sailed away pressing duty elsewhere, to on his return trip to France last Wedwith the houses." some nesday there must have been Then they Immediately recalled Mr. bitterness in his soul. For a very Wilson's .statement before- - his deparconsiderable part of the senate had re- ture for France last December, that fused to accept his dictates concern legislation could go forward uniming the constitution of the league of peded in his absence and that he could Rations," and congress had adjourned keep constantly In touch with congress under circumstances that seem to by cable and wireless. make necessary the early calling of an extra session despite the president's It Is the president's own opinion flat declaration that he would not sum- that the failure of emergency legislamon the new congress until his return tion will seriously upset financial confrom Paris. ditions, and because there Is general Mr. Wilson, in his speech In New agreement on this It is predicted the York, asserted that the great majority extra session of congress will be called of the American people favor a league not later than In May. There Is no of nations, and tfyere Is no doubt of likelihood of Mr. Wilson's being back the truth of the assertion. It is fa- by that time, for he has announced his vored, too, by a great majority of the Intention of remaining abroad until the senators, but many of them, and pre- work of the peace congress is comsumably many private 'citizens, do not pleted. " favor the constitution of the league At first It was thought the failure of as it now stands. The president has the appropriation for the railway adtold us that it is practically Impossible ministration would result In the almost now to amend the drafted constitution immediate return of the roads to their but that he is mistaken In this Is the former owners, though this is desired opinion of the opposing senators, and, by neither the owners" nor the general according to recent dispatches from public. Director General Hlnes stated Paris, some of the delegates to the later that a new plan of financing the peace conference agree with them. situation would be devised; that an senators effort would be made to After 39 Kepublican hold-ove- r prevail on the had signed a round railroads and other business Interests and senators-elec- t robin' declaring that the league conto borrow money necessary to enable stitution should be altered and that the administration to go forward with It should not be considered further Its railroad plans and that in no case until the peace treaty had been rati" would he countenance a policy whk:h fled, It was plain to the administrawould sjow jdown Industry or throw tion leaders. If not to the president, men out fff employment. The director that some compromise was necessary. general also declared that "there Is no Therefore; possibly with the authorizaoccasion to discuss the. question of retion of Mr. Wilson, Senator Hitchcock linquishment 'of the railroads." asked Senator Knox to draft the The fact remains that the railroads amendments which he anil other Remust have at least $700,000,000 before writpublican senators desire. At this May 31, and If they are forced to boring the results of this step are not row In the market the success of the ' It seemed likely that, if the known, Victory loan will be jeopardized. ... presid"t should concede some of the changes asked, the senators would conWith the return of Premier Lloyd sent to making the league an Integral George to Paris the peace delegates latOn of this the peace treaty. part consideration of the treaty, ter point the president takes a deter- took up the first the question of the dismined stnnd, telling his New York tackling armament of the enemy, naval and audience that when the treaty comes which was lifted from the back for ratification "we will find the military, covenant not only In It, hut so many armistice terms and will become a part "threads of the treaty tied to the cove- of the pence pact. As framed by the nant that you cannot dissect the cove- commission, this clause will effectually safeguard the world against aggression nant from the treaty without destroyby the Huns for a long time. As vras whole structure." vital the . ing the amount of money to be : expected, That a majority of the American exacted In reparation has been cut conIn of the favor are league people down greutly, but It still stands at an Is now It doubted stands as stitution enormous sum. The commission on by Senators Borah. Lodge, Knox and the matter of the western frontier was others of Its opponents. They say they said to have virtually finished Its work. are receiving numerous letters daily '"Vance not all her most enmay that protest against it. and are wllllm: thusiastic citizensget for, but an hoped that It should be submitted to a nation-aidadequate Iwiffer between her and Gerreferendum. Though the quesmany will he provided by the creation tion seems to. be drifting into the fluid of the neutralized strip along the west of partisan politics, It must be said hank of the Rhine. senators a of Democratic number that are as much ngnlnst the present league According to the last reports, the. plan as are the Republicans who signed named to determine ihe commission robin,-whilsome round Republithe responsibility of the authors of the cans are heartily supporting the presiLandent. In the next senate there will be war, which Is headed by Secretary at least 52 votes against the league sing, has oonte to a conclusion that will arouse a storm of protest throughplan, and 33 will be enough to preven out the civilized world. Its report, It Its ratification. is said, while fixing moral responsibility on the former kaiser and his asWhen the Sixty-fiftcongress gave sociates, falls to find legal responsibilup the ghost fit noon, March 4, a vast ity because there is no precedent or law applicable to the case and no exdeal of Important legislation, Including of about $3,000,000,000, appropriations isting court competent to try the acwas left unfinished. This was due to cused If their legal guilt were evident. a personal filibuster conducted by The layman will wonder why It Is Senators Sherman, France and La Fol-ttnecessary 4o find a precedent when They assumed all responsibility Wllhelm and bla craw created ao many in NEWS REVIEW OF CURRENT trlmlnal ini- - In A rn.ii na f roa f Britain, France or Belgium Is not com- petent to try the accused Individuals, whatever may have been thefr rank. Eminent legal bodies In several countries have reached conclusions at total variance with the reported finding of the commission over which Lansing presides. The league also is til kins- stens to nrotect tho from justice, having Issued a procla mation declaring the national assembly or the Ebert government Is In honor bound to furnish him a safe retreat on German soil. - jVEUTS e h e. their murderous warfare, and why Dili' n That Ebert government, by the way. Is becoming rather cocky In Its attitude , toward the allies. The cabinet held a meeting the other day with party leaders and others and all agreed that Germany could not submit to coercion from the entente powers In the armistice negotiations or In the peace pourparlers. It was declared that the government would decline responsibility for possible consequences "if the entente tries to speculate on German patience." - The demands of the allies for the Immediate surrender of merchant shipping were held to be because they would "paralyze the country's economic future," and the dismissal of German crews from the ships requisitioned was also ob- jected to. - - . lnac-ceptab- le ' In many parts of Germany the disorders created by the Spartacans continue unabated, and there has been frequent and bloody fighting, in Berlin as well as other places..: The Reds keep up their method of starting strikes, and In addition are said to be trying to open up the way through Koenlgsherg, East Prussia, for the entry of their bolshevik brothers from Russia. This move whs temnorarilv cheeked bv the sending of strong forces of troops. Government soldiers also operated effectively In Berlin, where the Spartacans were trying to get possession of by artillery fire. The government press predicted that the workingmen and tha government would reach an agreement and that the general strike would fall,, leaving the most radical Reds as the only malcontents. The government has proposed that the soldiers and workingmen's council be made an organic part of the governmental system under the new constitution that Is beine constructed at Weimar. Most of the present German leaders ", are" still against' any concessions to the demands or tne rotes as to tne eastern frontier, and the allies' com mission now in session at Kreuz on tne Brandenburg-Pose- n border, has a difficult question to settle. Field Marshal vuu niiiueuuuig 19 quuteu n suyiug that the territory In dispute never will be held by the Poles, but will belong iu eiiner me vjeriiiuus ur uie uuibiic- vtlrl Tfa iIoaIqpau nnnrphlaf hnrtiaa cannot be beaten off unless the people tnere rany to tne aeiense or tneir homes and their families. . The allied forces In northern Russia have retired somewhat before the attacks of the soviet troons. but have inflicted great losses on them. Trotsky is getting his big army more organized and Is reported to be planning to drive uiruugu ietuuma tiiiu imu xvuuuiuuiti and Hungary, with the expectation of eatiturlne BurtanesL The most amaz- Ine storv com I riff from Russia recently is mui ine soviet government nopes 10 arrange a Dig loan in America in re- cum ior mining ana rauroaa coucen- siiiiin. Aim. hi mm. u mucin ue uunr. . The Irish question pestered the president almost to the hour of his de- -nnprnpo ' n a nnnsa nurnra aniniiFninnn don ted a resolution asking the neace conference to recognize the right of Ireland to self determination; and a big delegation of Americans of Irish 1. , 1 !,....! An nr. H-- l i, s 1 to urge that he support that proposition. He refused to meet them until justice uonaian 01 new torn naa withdrawn, that Individual having been accused of taking part In Sinn Fein conspiracies and having been a defender of Jeremiah O'Leary who waa charged with obstructing the draft What the presldenttold tha delegation was not mad pabllc York . j '