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THE HELPER TIMES, HELPER, UTAH !irDiPw CDfJ2e STAGE COACH TALES n 7 AT By E. C. TAYLOR Structure Across Thames in Use for More Than The Vanderbilt of the Stage Era a Century. T II r '1"irni Wii-f r - nrrmrriiri i m ri Picking Coffee Berries In Brazil. GeoRraphle (Prepared by the National u. C. Society. Washington, recent announcement that in the coffee consumption United States climbed to a to tal ot 13 pounds per person in 1930, adds Interest to the checkered career the beverage since it was first brtwed in the Near East a millennium and a half ago. There are about 80 species of cof fee plants, but only a few of them are cultivated for commercial use. The coffee plant is a cousin of the 'fcona tree from the barbGamof quinine is produced. bler, which furnishes tanning material and dyes that bear the same name, and madder from the roots of which a substance is extracted that is important in some red dyes, also are related to the coffee plant The coffee plant started its worldwide ramblings centuries ago. Beginning in the hills of Ethiopia it "jumped" the Red sea and coffee plantations began to rise above the soil of the extreme southern tip of Arabia where the famous Mocha coffee now is produced. Later it was carried to Europe (about 250 years ago, and then to the West Indies and Brazil. Tradition has it that the discovery of coffee's stimulating effect upon the human system was an acOne story runs that the cident plant was discovered in the Fourth century by a group of monks who had been driven out of Egypt and found refuge in the Ethiopian hills. The monks maintained themselves by agriculture and sheep and goat raising. One night a niftnk reported'- to his leader that the flocks would not rest that they were widoj awake and frisking about hours that they should be The leader started invesquiet tigations that led to the coffee plant which he found the animals consumed while browsing on the hillsides. He chewed a few of the bfrries from the strange bush and found that they kept him unusually alert during the night services which were held in accordance with the religion. Although coffee did not strike a popular chord among Europeans until the Fifteenth century, as early as the reign of Charles II, in the middle of the Seventeenth century there were more than 3,000 coffee houses In London. Today coffee is a popular brew in every contion nent and the civilized islands of the seas, with the United States as the world's leading consumer. More than 1,509,000,000 pounds of coffee were imported by the United States last year. First Used as a Paste. But the coffee berry has had its Tips and downs during 'its rise to fame in the beverage world. Its first use was in the form of a paste which was eaten. Early Moslems were not permitted to drink wine, so they learned the art of making a brew from coffee berries. The name of coffee is derived from the Arabic word Kahweh, which was pronomieed Kahveh by the Turks. Kahveh was the general Arabic term for intoxicating liquors. According to some authorities, the first cup of coffee was drunk as a refreshment at Aden, Arabia, in the Fifteenth century. Cairo began the beverage about fifty driing Meanwhile Moslem years later. a meeting at Mecca held leaders where they decided that coffee should be banned. That was in 1511. As a result of the Mecca coffee warehouses were burned and coffee houses were closed in many parts of the Mohammedan world. Some of the coffee house proprietors were beaten with their own brewing utensils by fanatical Moslems. - The-b- an in Egypt lasted only thirteen years, when Sultan Selim 1 gave coffee his stamp of aplie emphasized his approval, proval of the brew by ordering the execution of two Persian doctors who had denounced the use of coffee as injurious to- - health. Today Egypt is among the largest coffee drinking regions of the world. Some desert people of Egypt and the Near East use the beverage In connec- Li tion with religoius observances. In the East, coffee is usually used In powdered form. The coffee beans popularly known in the United States are placed in a mortar and Then the powder Is put pounded. Into boiling water. The coffee maker serves the beverage only after a prescribed ceremony. lie pours a small quantity of the" liquid info one cup and then rinses each brew. After all cups cup wl luue been rinsed the rinsing liquid is poured on the lire ns a tribute to Klinykh esh Khndliiily, the coffee drinkers' patron. Half a cup is served first to the eldest and most honored guest. To hand a full cup to a guest would be an Ingulf, , r.f)0ffe Map of the World. If one were to construct a coffee map of the world filling In coffee growing areas in black he would find most of his dark area on the portion of the world map between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Mexico would Tropic of Cancer. be filled in from the Tropic of Can cer to its southernmost border. The whole area of Central America and a wide coastal rim around the northwestern shoulder of South America, including portions of Ec uador, Bolivia and Peru on the Pacific, and Columbia and the Guianas on the Atlantic would also be marked, as well as Jamaica, Haiti, Porto Eico and Santo An inverted area on the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Bahia to a point south of Bio de Janeiro in Brazil is the world's leading coffee producing area. In this region is Sao Paulo state whose prosperity rises and falls with the condition of .the coffee Industry. Coffee is responsible for the fact that the state has more miles of railroads than any other state in the republic. The railroad leading from Santos, the world's chief cof fee port, to Sao Paulo, the world's coffee capital, is one of the richest steel highways because it is literally a coffee funnel, the smaller end of the funnel being set In snips' holds at Santos. The first coffee berries did not reach Brazil until 1727. Today cof fee and Brazil are nearly synony mous. In Sao Paulo state alone there are more than 40,000 coffee plantations with 906,000,000 trees in New trees numbering production. 158,000,000 have been set out and soon will be in production. One plantation owns its own railroads, highways, shops, stores 'and ware pear-shape- d houses. Africa has several coffee-groing regions. Liberia, Sierre Leone and a portion of southern Nigeria are large producers. The coastal zones of the Belgian Congo and a portion of Angola, Mozambique and Kenya are dotted with plantations, while Ethiopia, original home of the famous coffee berry, continues to produce. Coffee plantations in Madagascar are confined to the eastern half of the island. The southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula continues to Mocha coffee, grow the while the southern tip of India and Ceylon also are important regions of Asia. Java and coffee-growin- g neighboring islands have successcoffee transplanted fully grown from Liberia, and New Guinea's eastern plantations are showing promise in the coffee industry. Australia's region is in Queensland, the ' sugar bowl" of the continent. How the Bean Is Handled. The coffee plant grows to a height of from 15 to 20 feet. Its blossoms remain on the plant only a day or two, wnen the petals wither and fail and the fruit begins to take A bush produces from two shape. to three crops a year. Bipe coffee berries resemble dark red cherries. Inside the"cherrles"aretwo coffee beans (the coffee of commerce) which are extracted by various coffee-growin- g processes. are enveloped in a The delicate skin and fleshy pulp. In Arabia these coverings are removed by the old drying method. The berries are spread out on a drying floor a few inches deep, where they are frequently stirred so that each berry may be exposed to the sun. The pulpy covering dries in from two to three weeks after which the berries are pounded until the coffee beans are set free. The most popular method of hulling is the wet method. The berries are brought In from the field and placed. In tank3. The mature berries will sink to the bottom of the tank, where they are drawn off through pipes and conveyed to crushing machines. The crushed mass passes to a water tank where it Is stirred to separate the beans. The beans fall to the bottom of the tank and are withdrawn. At this stage the beans are. covered with a slimy film which is removed by placing them in a vat where fermentation sots up. Then they are washed, dried and sacked for market, the latter process consisting of assorting the beans Into sizes, colors, and eliminating any foreign bodies from the mass. young coffee plants must be given protection from the sun for several months after they break through the ground. Some planters shade them with palm loaves; some a matting covered by building frame over the plants about three feet above the ground. AVhen the plants are more than a foot high the shade may be removed grad- . ' UCIUS WITHAM STOCKTON was to the stage coach era of transportation in the United States what Commodore Cornelius Vanderbilt was to the railroad era the outstanding figure, almost the "czar," of his time. Stockton was born In Fleming-tonN. J., the son of Lucius Stock ton and grandson of Kev. Philip Stockton, famous as the "Revolutionary Preacher," who was a broth er of Richard Stockton, signer of the Declaration of Independence. Little is known of his early life, but it is known that be drove stage coaches for a time, and ap peared in Uniontown, Pa., lured westward by the call of the Nation al road, and married Rebecca Moore, daughter of Daniel Moore, an old stage proprietor of Washing ton, Pa., before he was twenty-fou- r years of age. They had six chil dren. His second wife was his first cousin, Kartharine Stockton, and four children were born to them. Stockton became wealthy operat ing stage coaches over the famous old National road from the Atlantic seaboard to the Middle West, and was perhaps the most colorful figure of his day. Early in his career he once raced a horse and buggy against a locomotive between Relay House and Baltimore, Md and won the race, He drove a favorite gray horse in that contest Stockton was a great lover of horses, and developed his own special strains for his stage coach lines. He had a strain called the "Murat" and another called the "Winflower," which many experts declare have never been surpassed for nerve, beauty and speed. This can never be determined, however. as the two strains have died out He was a' familiar figure along the National road, and became known as the "speed maniac" of his day. He had a span of beautiful Winnower mares, which Hanson Willison, one of his drivers, has re corded were named "Sal" and "Bet." He frequently drove this span from Uniontown to Wheeling, W. Va., be tween breakfast and tea time, stopping two or three hours at midday in Washington, That bridge across the Thames at London which is borne upon five granite arches and known as London bridge has completed 100 years of history. But its name is much older than a century. At or near the point at which this modern structure spans the river there has been a crossing from time immemorial. The Saxons had a bridge there (or successive bridges) made of wood and barred by a fortified gate a gate to the city. It was swept away by a storm. Then, in 11S0, only a little more than a century after the Conquerer had come, was commenced that stone structure which served Londoners for nearly 650 years. Until the middle of the Eighteenth century it alone drew together the two banks of the Thames at London. In Its pleturesqueness it vied with the Rialto of Venice and the Tonte Vaccliio of Florence, which, in some part, it resembled. On each side of Its roadway it had shops and stately houses, some with gardens on their roofs. There was a Twelfth-centur- y chapel on a wider pier at about the middle. The structure, however, was suited better to the ideals and customs of the Middle ages than to modern notions about bridges. Within the 900 feet of the river's width it had 18 solid stone piers varying from 5 to 34 feet in thickness, so that, In effect, it sent the waters of the Thames through a greatly narrowed channel. The piers supported buildings four stories in height, which in turn narrowed the passage for vehicles and pedestrians, and darkened it to almost tunnel blackness. The buildings were cleared away in the middle of the Eighteenth century, but the obstruction to navigation still remained, and, In 1S23, after if toots Salt Lake City Directory ASSAYERS AND CHEMISTS 8. Wet and Laboratory J29-J3- 1 Temple St., Salt Lake City. Utah. P. O. Box 1666. Malting envelope and price OIBc furnished (Garage Acrut 157 Main Used Pipe, Fittings & Valves Newly threaded and coupled for aU purpose Monsey Iron and Metal Co. Halt Lake City, Utah trd West 700 So. Office Furniture and Supplies. Theater and Church Kurniture,Eilison-liclimecfrraph, and Siipplies.Full Line of Stationery. Wrapping l'aper, etc. Oldest and Largest School Bur.ply.and Equipment House in the Wet. I M'HOOL M'Pl'LY 0. 1.15 So. Mate Mrect - Suit Lake City. k IMI-IDAI- cal and Airplane- Enginecrl.!;, Special Airplane Mechanics, Auto Machine SlHip, Klectrio Shop, Ignition, Buttery, etc. Steam Complete fdectrlral, H.vdrnnl!o, and Tea tint Labornto-ie- . Corn-tosse- Sorts tbont two yean' lime assisted In financing Student courses. Writ W. B. GIBSON n' the Street) St., SALT LAKE CTTT Room ,8lngle Without Bali, per day, ri tell .6 Roouia, Dou ble Without Bath, per day, (1 .60 Rooma, Single With Bath,perday,1.5UtoB 00 Rooms, Double With Bath, per day ,2.Uu to 60 All Depot Stmt Can Fas the Hotel. in eiirea Mechanic. Valuable Discipline "Josh says lie's going to take up aviation." l, "If he does," replied Farmer "he'll learn to be a heap more careful about keepin' machinery in repair than he ever was while work-iaround the farm." request. iittie Ol-o- ru river-crossin- g on Salt Lake City's "rewest Hotel their for tree catalog. W. I. WOOD President Registrar 1 No "After J f rV yS Y I 7 JX. I Bite'l With fei' . "! "When Shaving 1 HOTEL Shaving Cream fCfrfot4,7 -- Ml, ' H i! COOYlfiff 3oiTENvl j TEMPLE' SQUARE maH amount quickly becomes a thick, lasting lather that penetrates to the hair follicles, while the medicated properties of CntlTira soothe the Radio connection in every rom. RATES FROM 1.50 Maiden, Mass. Many a man has lost his clinging to one idea. Bedroom Golf "I have my round of strokes every morning." "What course do you play on?" "The cheek and chin course." 200 Tile Baths 200 Rooms At your dealers or ent postpaid on receipt 35c- - Address: Cuticura Laboratories, I grip by Just opposite Mormon TabrmacU C ROSSITER.Ar. ERNEST Men are like pins no good when they lose their heads. To do Is to succeed. Schiller. Pa. Stockton always had the hostlers add a little whisky to the water given this span to drink, and the spirited fleet steeds became so accustomed to their "tipple" that they refused to drink unless their water had a little whisky in it. He also frequently drove from Uniontown to Cumberland, Md., in a day, stopping at the stage coach station along the way to transact business. Also a drive from Cum berland to Hagerstown, Md., a distance of 6G miles, was an ordinary day's drive for him. He had a private carriage, along open vehicle, which he called "The Flying Dutchman," and which was famous among horsemen and sports men of the time. The famous span once ran away with him, when he was driving his wife and sister over the National road. His sister clutched frantically at him, but he didn't pay any at tention to her cries, and soon had the spirited team under control. Stockton had a factory in Union- town where nearly all of the coaches of the National Road Stage company, which he had organized and which ran nearly all competitors out of business during the hey day of the National road, were built by experts. MaJ. William A. Donaldson was one of the foremen at the factory on Morgantown street All stage coaches of the rational road days were named, mostly for famous personages of the time. Stockton had one named "John Tyler" in honor of the Vice President of the first Harrison administration. Wrhen Tyler, on the death of Wil liam Henry Harrison, succeeded to the Presidency and vetoed the Unit ed States bank bill, Stockton was very much angered. Going into the stage coach yard, soon after the veto was announced, he spied the "John Tyler" and shouted to Donaldson : 'Donaldson, can't you erase that name and substitute another one? I won't have my coaches named for a traitor." 'Certainly I can," Donaldson re plied. "What shall the new name be?" "Call it 'General Harrison.' " So the change was made. Don aldson was a Democrat, and was much amused by the incident. Stockton died in Lniontown April 25, 1841, at "Ben Lomond," his elab orate estate. He is burled in the cemetery at Washington, Pa., where rest many other builders of the Al legheny Mountain region. ((c). 11131. Ia the city is where a fire seldom bitter debate, it was decreed that a Two destroys as much of the building as new bridge must be built years later the duke of York laid you think It is going to. the foundation stone; and then, after six years more, the new structure, only a few yards higher up the river, was opened with flags, music, oratory ... and parades. In the following year old London bridge went the way of the centuries. But London bridge is still London bridge. It still divides the Thames y ii into "above" and "below" and, though there are other bridges now Tower and Victoria, Waterloo and JtL- Westminster and the rest it still carries Londoners from one bank to Polytechnic College of Engineering the other, just as its predecessors Ilia u4 HUiu Sb., Oakli, carried Saxon and conquerer, knight and cleric. And though the pace is Leading Engineering School swifter now, what with motor cars Uniriiy Standard in Technical Sciriy EjitUiiheJ in X894 Ova $300,000 PUnL speeding along the deck widened in Qmrtatd to grtfftf dtrea in ion the beginning of the motor age, the bridge has not broken with Britain's AH ubject omitted. In. tensive practical thorough course past. Its lamp posts are cast of the in Civil, MinElectrlral, Mfihuni.nl, In the War cannon Britons captured ing. Arcaitcctaral and Structural of the reninsula. iew courses in Aeronauti- BRIDGE LONG PART OF "LONDON TOWN" Western Newspaper Union.) Spider Builds Diving Bell A spider that lives under water insect like the Is an garden variety. It can remain under water for many hours at a time and even builds its nest there and rears its young by means of air which it collects on the surface, and stores in a reservoir made of its silk. In midwinter, among the pond- weeds, it spins a delicate, Hat web, an almost invisible sheet. Then it climbs a plant to the surface, to collect air. It may swim awhile on Us back to entangle air in ils thick hairy coat, and tiien smartly dive. The effect Is, the air goes with it, caught by its hair, and between its eight legs. Wall Lizard Multiplied Back in 1020 a few little Euro ually. The plants nre usually set out pean wall lizards escaped from 10 to 12 feet apart. Often catch their owner In West Philadelphia. crops such as maize and beans are They liked the climate and surplanted between the young plants, roundings so well that they have These crops are nspful and give multiplied and spread and now form the third species in the locality. added protection to the seedling i v-- - I 1 ' mf'Tt it aaaa imt .. ioTHW- - n . t - 11 mm ill1 i, c "gJ w (; '"ina 7,1 "n ill I ffirnwnn-- Manufacturing Eiilclencj Firestone control step in the manufacture of their every products own their own rubber preparation factory in and their own Singapore their own cotton fabric mills efficient world. With tire factories 'the the in most huge these great advantages Firestone save millions of dollars annually, which are passed on to car owners in Extra Values. Mail Order houses have their tires built as a part of a miscellaneous assortment of production by some manufacturer who is unknown to the public. Mail Order houses are dependent upon others for their tires. Distributing Economy 0 comparing manufactur ing, construction, and distribution can you determine what is behind the price tag on the tires you are asked to buy. Price alone is never an index to value unless you know the reputation and ability of the manufacturer and what advantages he has in purchasing of raw materials, manufacNLY-b- turing efficiency, and distributing economies. These are the factors that determine tire value. Firestone have the most efficient and economical distributing system through Service Dealers and Service Stores. Firestone know tires must carry with them the necessary service for the economy, safety, and satisfaction of car owners. Special brand mail order tires are usually made just to sell, with limited or no facilities for servicing the car owner after the sale. Quality and Construction V$t JirIVB Vive IOU Non-Ski- kA Special Brand Mall Order Tire Oldfl.ld Typ. Tin 10.06 .879 .344 .258 5 4.75 (5.69 9 H.D. 6.00-1- 9 Finite 17.10 .5 d 28.45 877 .305 7 8 6.0 $11.45 6.02 $11.45 Lowest Prices Oldfi.ld Typ. Cull PriM E"'1' 4.40-2- 1 4.50-2- 0 4.50-24.75-1- 1 9 4.75-2- 0 5.00-1- 9 5.00-2- 0 . ' B'" 1 " r,,,r Flrfitonli Fimtont Olddeld Oldneltf Typ. Cam Typ. Cain Prlc. 8I" Prio Pw P,lr f t.M S4.9S $.60 $.69 6.6$ 6.7$ 6.9 ?.10 A Special Brand" is made by a manufacturer for distributor cuoli as mail order houses, oil companies, and others, nnder a name that dor not identify the lire manufacturer to the public, usually because bo build bis "best quality" tires under his own name. Firestone puts his name on every tire he makes. Order Mora Weight, pounds . . . 17.18 Mora ThicknesH, inches . . .63$ More Depth, inches . 6 More riieo Under Tread . . 6 Same Width, inches . . . . 4.75 tS-6Same Price Read the facts at the right tire Tir frASpeclal Brand Mall Type Flriton then go to the Firestone Service Dealer in your community and make your own comparisons with cross sections of Firestone Tires and special brand mail order tires. See the Extra Values you get by equipping your car with Firestone Tires. 4.50-a- i FlrMtos Oldftild 5.60 5.69 6.65 6.75 6.98 7.10 All Other $.60 10.90 11.10 H.90 13.14 13.60 13.80 E,cl1 . c' . . B,f "J" FirMton. Oldnild Typ. C..H Prlc. Pw P'r Ul.41 Jll.i? $Z.SO bAu. TRK and BUS TIRES $17.95 29.75 ") 32,)", '7 ;6,V '" J I7-- $34-9- S7-9- $ sa-- 5 ,S-- S 0 0 13-2- ise Proportionately Low Double Guarantee r.verr tire mnnufac lured by Firestone bears the name "FIRLiiTONli" and carries Firestone's unlimited guarantee and that of our 23,000 Service Dealers and Service Stores. You are doubly protected. I;.'.-- i j.riinMuii'